1971 India Pakistan War: Role of Russia, China, America and Britain

1971 Newspaper-ceasefireIt was in the year 1971 when the two South Asian rivals declared war on each other, causing a great loss to the lives, property and territory in case of Pakistan.

As the topic sounds controversial, before we begin we would like to tell that every information in this article is sourced. The article was written after a detail analysis of various sources. All the relevant and immediate sources are listed at the end of the Article.

Background

Map of Countries involved in 1971 India Pakistan war
Countries Involved in 1971 War, Click to Enlarge

Before 1971, Bangladesh used to be a part of Pakistan as East Pakistan. According to Najam Sethi, a well respected and honoured journalist from Pakistan, East Pakistan always complained that they received less development funds and less attention from the West Pakistan (Punjabi) dominating government. Bengalis in East Pakistan also resisted the adoption of Urdu as the state language. The revenue from export, whether it was from the Cotton of West Pakistan or Jute of East Pakistan, was handled mainly by West Pakistan. Lastly, in an election conducted just some months before the war, the victory was gained by the East Pakistani leader and still he was not given the power, thus fueling the movement in East Pakistan.

Pakistani army started its operation in East Pakistan to contain the movement and anger among the Bengalis. It is reported that the army was involved in mass killing of public and mass rape of women. India was aware of this and was only waiting for a trigger to start the war. India started receiving huge number of refugees which became unmanageable, pushing it to intervene in the situation. The situation soon attracted the attention of many other countries. Thus the war later was not only between India and Pakistan, but many countries were involved in 1971 Indo Pakistani war (War of Liberation of Bangladesh) directly or indirectly.

In May, Indira Gandhi wrote to Nixon about the ‘carnage in East Bengal’ and the flood of refugees, burdening India. After L K Jha (then the Indian ambassador to US) had warned Kissinger that India might have to send back some of the refugees as guerrillas, Nixon commented, ‘By God, we will cut off economic aid [to India].’

A few days later, when the US president said ‘the goddamn Indians’ were preparing for another war, Kissinger retorted ‘they are the most aggressive goddamn people around.’

US and China Connection, A Little Known Fact

(All Excerpts and Sources from 929 page long Volume XI of the Foreign Relations of the United States)

US sympathized with Pakistan, because of various reasons. Among them two reasons were that: firstly, Pakistan belonged to American led military Pact, CENTO and SEATO; secondly, US believed any victory of India will be considered as the expansion of Soviet influence in the parts gained by India with the victory, as it was believed to be a pro Soviet nation, even though they were non aligned.

In a telegram sent to US Secretary of State Will Roger, on March 28, 1971, the staff of the US consulate in Dhaka complained, ‘Our government has failed to denounce the suppression of democracy. Our government has failed to denounce atrocities. Our government has failed to take forceful measures to protect its citizens while at the same time bending over backwards to placate the West Pakistan dominated government… We, as professional public servants express our dissent with current policy and fervently hope that our true and lasting interests here can be defined and our policies redirected in order to salvage our nation’s position as a moral leader of the free world.’

This brought China in the picture. US needed help from China and the messenger was Pakistan. US  approached China very secretly on this issue, who was more than welcoming as it believed that their relations with US could improve from this onward.

During the second week of July, 1971, Kissinger arrived in Beijing, where he heard the words by then Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai: “In our opinion, if India continues on its present course in disregard of world opinion, it will continue to go on recklessly. We, however, support the stand of Pakistan. This is known to the world. If they [the Indians] are bent on provoking such a situation, then we cannot sit idly by.’ On this, Kissinger responded that China should know that the US also backs Pakistan on this issue.

Indira Gandhi, the Indian prime minister in those times decided to tour most of the Western capitals to prove Indian stand and gain support and sympathy for the Bengalis of East Pakistan. On November 4th and 5th she met Nixon in Washington. Nixon straight forwardly told her that a new war in the subcontinent was out of the question.

The next day, Nixon and Kissinger assessed the situation. Kissinger told Nixon: ‘The Indians are bastards anyway. They are plotting a war.’

The pressure increased in East Pakistan, which attracted Indian attention. Indians were preparing for war and were concentrated on the Eastern front. To divert the pressure, on December 3, in the dark of night, even before India could attack East Pakistan, Pakistan opened western front and air raided six Indian Airfields in Kashmir and Punjab.

The CIA reported to the US President that Indian Prime Minister believes that the Chinese will never intervene militarily in North India, and thus, any action from China would be a surprise for India and Indian military might collapse in tensed situation caused by fighting in three different fronts (East, North and West).

Hearing this, on December 9, Nixon decided to send the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise into the Bay of Bengal to threaten India. The plan was to Surround India from all four sides and force them to retreat and leave East Pakistan.

On December 10, Nixon instructed Kissinger to ask the Chinese to move some troops toward the Indian frontier. ‘Threaten to move forces or move them, Henry, that’s what they must do now.’ China feared any action on India might attract Soviet aggression. At this, US assured China that any action taken by Soviet Union will be countered by US to protect China.

Pakistani army had somehow maintained their position and resisted Indian advancement. They believed China is preparing to open the Northern front which will slow down or completely stop the Indian advancement. In fact, the myth of Chinese activity was also communicated to Pakistan’s army to boost their moral, to keep their will to fight and hope alive. Lieutenant General A A K Niazi, the Pakistani army commander in Dhaka, was informed: “NEFA front has been activated by Chinese, although the Indians, for obvious reasons, have not announced it.” But Beijing never did.

In Washington, Nixon analysed the situation thus: ‘If the Russians get away with facing down the Chinese and the Indians get away with licking the Pakistanis…we may be looking down the gun barrel.’ Nixon was not sure about China. Did they really intend to start a military action against India?

Soviet Union / Russian Role in the Indo Pakistan 1971 War.

As India had decided to go on with the war, and Indira Gandhi had failed to gain American support and sympathy for the Bengalis who were being tortured in East Pakistan, she finally took a hard move and on August 9, signed a treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation with Soviet Union.

The State Department historian says, ‘in the perspective of Washington, the crisis ratcheted up a dangerous notch, India and the Soviet Union have signed a treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation.’ It was a shock to America as this was what they feared, expansion of Soviet influence in South Asia. They feared that involvement of Soviet Union could sabotage their plan.

On December 4, just one day after Pakistan raided Indian airfields in Kashmir and Punjab declaring war on India, America’s proxy involvement in the war was becoming clear. Thinking that the Soviet Union might enter the war if they come to know this, which could cause a lot of destruction to Pakistan and American equipment given to Pakistan, US ambassador to the United Nations George H W Bush [later 41st president of the United States and father of George Bush] introduced a resolution in the UN Security Council, calling for a cease-fire and the withdrawal of armed forces by India and Pakistan. Believing India can win the war and Indira Gandhi being determined to protect the interest of Bengalis, Soviet Union vetoed out the resolution, thus letting India fight for the cause. Nixon and Kissinger pressurized Soviets to a very extent but luck did not support them.

Video Translated by : Ella Salomatina, The World Reporter.

On 3rd December, 1971, the World was shaken by another war between India and Pakistan. Pakistani airforce raided Indian cities and airstrips. The Indian PM, Indira Gandhi, brought the country in the state of emergency and ordered Indian army to reflect the aggression. Fierce military operations developed on the ground, in the air and in the sea.

Historic document: “Confidential. December, 10, 1971. Moscow. For the DM Marshal Andrey Grechko.

According to the information from our ambassador in Delhi, in the very first day of the conflict the Indian destroyer ‘Rajput’ had sunk a Pakistani submarine with deep bombing. On December, 4 and 9, the speed boats of India had destroyed and damaged 10 Pakistani battle ships and vessels by Soviet anti ship P-15 missiles. In addition 12 Pakistani oil storage were burned in flame.”

Britain and Soviet Confrontation

Confidential – The Commander of the Military Intelligence Service Gen. Pyotr Ivashutin.

“The Soviet Intelligence has reported that the English operative connection has come nearer to territorial India, water led by an aircraft carrier “Eagle” [On December 10]. For helping friendly India, Soviet government has directed a group of ships under the command of contr-admiral V. Kruglyakov.”

Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:

“I was ordered by the Chief Commander to track the British Navy’s advancement, I positioned our battleships in the Bay of Bengal and watched for the British carrier “Eagle”.

But Soviet Union didn’t have enough force to resist if they encountered the British Carrier. Therefore, to support the existing Soviet fleet in the Bay of Bengal, Soviet cruisers, destroyers and nuclear submarines, equipped with anti ship missiles, were sent from Vladivostok.

In reaction English Navy retreated and went South to Madagascar.

Soon the news of American carrier Enterprise and USS Tripoli’s advancement towards Indian water came.

V. Kruglyakov “ I had obtained the order from the commander-in-chief not to allow the advancement of the American fleet to the military bases of India”

We encircled them and aimed the missiles at the ‘Enterprise’. We had blocked their way and didn’t allow them to head anywhere, neither to Karachi, nor to Chittagong or Dhaka”.

The Soviet ships had small range rockets (only upto 300 KM). Therefore, to hold the opponent under the range, commanders ran risks of going as near to the enemy as possible.

“The Chief Commander had ordered me to lift the submarines and bring them to the surface so that it can be pictured by the American spy satellites or can be seen by the American Navy!’ It was done to demonstrate, that we had all the needed things in Indian Ocean, including the nuclear submarines. I had lifted them, and they recognized it. Then, we intercepted the American communication. The commander of the Carrier Battle Group was then the counter-admiral Dimon Gordon. He sent the report to the 7th American Fleet Commander: ‘Sir, we are too late. There are Russian nuclear submarines here, and a big collection of battleships’.

Americans returned and couldn’t do anything. Soviet Union had also threatened China that, if they ever opened a front against India on its border, they will receive a tough response from North.

Role of Sri Lanka

Pakistani high commissioner in Colombo, Seema Ilahi Baloch said in her speech addressed to Lanka-Pakistan business council in Colombo in June, 2011 that Pakistan can never forget the help which Sri Lanka offered to Pakistan during the 1971 war between India and Pakistan.

“We in Pakistan cannot forget the logistical and political support Sri Lanka extended to us in 1971 when it opened its refueling facilities for us,” she said.

Pakistani Aircraft destined to East Pakistan flew taking a round of India via Sri Lanka, since they could not fly over Indian sky. This forced Pakistan to get its aircrafts refueled on the way. Sri Lanka eager to help Pakistan, allowed Pakistani aircrafts for refueling at the Bandaranaike airport.

The war ended with the surrender of Pakistani army as they missed American help due to quick Russians who blocked both America and China from preventing India to advance. With this, a new country named Bangladesh was formed, which was recognized by the whole world and by Pakistan in the following year with Shimla Agreement.

Sanskar Shrivastava is the founder of international students' journal, The World Reporter. Passionate about dynamic occurrence in geopolitics, Sanskar has been studying and analyzing geopolitcal events from early life. At present, Sanskar is a student at the Russian Centre of Science and Culture and will be moving to Duke University.
  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/13809864122983288031 yasirbm928

    Ok.I am Pakistani.In Bangladesh Pakistan did bad .What india is doing in Kashmir.Total population hate india.Indian army is not doing well in Kashmir.They are raping Kashmirs girls.Is it right or wrong.What about babri mosque and gujrat incident.Indian government is involved in Balochistan dispute and Karachi terorism.These are few examples.It is fashion to say bad to Pakistan.is india innocent.Think ?
    Answer me if you have courage.
    My email address is.
    [email protected]

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/13911159348461969711 Svetlana Petrova

    @yasirbm928

    The article doesn’t cite what Pakistan did in Bangladesh or What India is doing in Kashmir, The article is about how US, England, Russia and China were involved in the war.

    India knows what Pakistan did, and Pakistan knows what India did. But many people in both the nations do not know how US, China, Russia and England was involved.

    Let us not divert from the topic

    Anyway, About Kashmir, many allegations against India are true, but not all.. IF everything was true then Kashmiris wouldnt have voted in the election. Their turn out was more than 50% which means they believe in Indian democratic system and do not wish to move away from India.

    Babri Mazjid is criticised everywhere even in India, most of the leaders lost the popularity. this is one of the cause why BJP couldn’t come in power again despite so much development which was done in their time.

    But a matured Indian system, supreme court has resolved the issue and there is peace everywhere.

    About Gujarat incident, even Indian criticize those who were involved. Though nothing has been proved completely, but popularity of Narendra Modi has gone down.. But his development record, good governance and thinking is so amazing that Gujarat alone can be compared with many European countries in terms of economy and facility. His incredible achievement makes him popular and a potential candidate for Prime Minister in the next election. Everything about Gujarat riot is still not clear and nobody can be blamed.

    There is no proof of Indian involvement in Balochistan and Karachi terrorism with Pakistan, India had proof of Kasab’s pakistani indentity and they shared with Pakistan as well as 100 other countries. But Pakistan never shared the evidence even after being asked by India.

    • Suraksh Shetty

      Well , I am a proud Indian & i am unhappy with your comments.

      India has not done anything at Kashmir. Its pakistan which is trying to destabilise India by providing Guns to the Kashmiris. Kashmir is and would be an integral part of India.

      India has a fundamentally strong Judiciary, a stable government , 2.5 million strong armed force, a country where people believe in democracy.

      As regards communal tension , Pakistan shouldnt teach us anything bcoz there is genocide going inside pakistan against Christians , Hindus.

      India is developing fast & has an aim to become the World Superpower, which they will with time.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/16381133371200621633 Rajkumar

    India never invoalved in any terror activities in balochistan or Karachi. Pak is trying to divert attention, and blame everything on india and america for its own problem. Pak should take a long look at their path and decide the future. One mosque war destroyed. How many temples are destroyed in pak daily and how many are converted to hotels daily? Why cant u see whats happening in pak? Godhra riots started when muslims burnt alive hundreds of hindu pilgrims travelling in train. Both communities died in the riots. All the four wars was started by pak. If india had started any war, there would be no pak today. India wanted peace. When vajpayee was in lahore talking to pak. Pak quietly sent troops to kargil.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/16381133371200621633 Rajkumar

    Indian army in Kashmir is protecting people there. Few terrorists are interrogated there. Infiltrators are killed. Thats what they are doing. In kashmir very people face violent death than the rest of the country, it is the reality. It is pak that is creating an illusion of violence.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/06064452768058093522 jyotirmoy

    During that period USA and Russia were the real super powers and it was they who dictated the terms and conditions of global political mobilization as per their sphere of influence and mental inclination. But things have changed drastically with the rapid authoritative progress by China both in influence and military capabilities across complete Asia. Neither the disintegrated Russia nor the beaten back America, can now play their role without pleasing/obtaining permission of China.
    In the whole gamut,India as of now stands nearly isolated,encircled and totally dominated by the diplomatic,economic and military capability of the Chinese.
    The non involvement of China during 1971 war,now appears to be their own master plan rather than threat of Russia. The tremendous mistrust,distrust and enmity generated after the liberation(formation) of Bangladesh,between India and Pakistan,was to the advantage and win-win achievement to Chinese game plan. While successfully injecting failure oriented hatred against USA in the mind of Pakistan(nearly converted to reality now),the Chinese moved their pawns in a superlative master skill to checkmate the political supremacy in this region step by step as under–
    1) By removing Majibur Rahman,India’s influence on Bangladesh was cut short permanently
    2)Advising Pakistan to ensure a huge influx of Muslim fundamentalist to India and spread across the nation, in the guise of distressed/displaced Hindus, who could be gainfully utilized in various subservient/terrorist activities (as is seen now)
    3)To throttle any move by India specially in western front(J&K included),the Chinese Installed a strong army base at the gilgit region (donated by Pakistan).
    4) After eliminating the popular King, the Chinese,brought Nepal under their control through a Marxist movement
    5)Democratically elected government at Myanmar was prevented to take charge,by engineering a puppet army rule.
    6)Iran was brought under their wings by providing diplomatic and material assistance.
    7)China is now busy in spreading their influence in all Muslim Arab countries with anti American propaganda,and by providing necessary support.
    Had the American Bastards (as per their own diplomatic dictionary),acted with human brain a skill and vision today the political scenario of entire subcontinent would have been different.

  • Anonymous

    Correction.

    War started on 21st November 1971, not 3rd December 1971.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/13911159348461969711 Svetlana Petrova

    @Anonymous

    It was officially from 3rd December to 16th December.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/12125986428898984858 James

    @yasirbm928::
    I don’t agree with your comment “In Bangladesh Pakistan did bad”, TRUTH is “Pakistanis did worst or Horrible”, they killed 3 million people, mostly Hindu, raped women. That’s the worst Genocide, after Hitler.
    Let me tell you 1 thing, Pakistan always wanted Kashmir, and fought 3 wars and what did they got? NOTHING, To the worst, they lost Bangladesh!!! Are you guys are the biggest FOOLs and your politicians are the God damn stupid!! LOL…
    East Pakistan were your own country, your own people, even majority Muslims(As Pak is a Islamic country) n why did you repress them, kill them!!! And now you are saying INDIANS killing Kashmirs!!! Is Indian army stationed in Kashmir before!!! You guys started Terrorism, that’s why Army comes to pic, and let me tell you, Militants started killing Kashmiri Hindus. AND now No Kashmiri wants to join Pakistan, as they know very well about the current situation of your country, every day people are dying in the blast!!! Let me make you understand ONE thing, if still you and your people didn’t understand: EVEN YOU FIGHT WITH INDIA FOR THOUSAND YEARS, YOU WILL NEVER GOT AN INCH OF THE KASHMIR, MIGHT LOST ANOTHER PART LIKE YOU DID IN 1971. KASHMIR WAS AN INTEGRAL PART OF INDIA N IT WILL REMAIN THE SAME FOREVER.

    Regarding Babri Mazjid and Gujurat incident, please mind your own business, that’s totally internal affair to INDIA. Muslims in INDIA living in peace and growing with Incredible INDIA. Talking about minority, how many Hindus, Christians live in Pakistan and how many temples, churches are in Pakistan!!! We have 13.4% Muslims in India, who are ready to sacrifice their life for Mother INDIA. We are a secular country and will be in future. And do you have little SHAME blaming INDIA for terrorist, LOL, are you OUT OF YOUR GOD DAMN MIND? You are the f*** terrorists, whole world knows what you did and doing right now!!!

    Please stop hatred on INDIANs, just live in peace and let us live and prosper. We are not animals!!! Is it WORTH fight for nth, as many people are in poverty, dieing becoz of Hunger. Is that a country Muhammad Ali Jinnah dreamed of when Pakistan created??

    • Aneesh

      Why Pakistan Army mostly Rape Hindu Women ? why they don’t rape Muslim Women ? Because as per Holy Quran at the End of World there will be a war between Muslim and Non Muslim (Mainly Hindu, Christian, Buddhist …etc.) And Muslim will Defeat By Non Muslim in first war. And after the second war They will win and they will kill all Non Muslim Specially Hindu. So every Muslim think that Hindu People are Dangerous So if they get any kind of chance to hurt Hindu people they will not loose. And one more thing As per Holy Quran every Muslim are brothers even they are Pakistan or Indians. even they are enemies they are brothers . Ask any Muslim if u want to

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/12125986428898984858 James

    @yasirbm928
    I don’t agree with your comment “In Bangladesh Pakistan did bad”, TRUTH is “Pakistanis did worst or Horrible”, they killed 3 million people, mostly Hindu, raped women. That’s the worst Genocide, after Hitler.
    Let me tell you 1 thing, Pakistan always wanted Kashmir, and fought 3 wars and what did they got? NOTHING, To the worst, they lost Bangladesh!!! Are you guys are the biggest FOOLs and your politicians are the God damn stupid!! LOL…
    East Pakistan were your own country, your own people, even majority Muslims(As Pak is a Islamic country) n why did you repress them, kill them!!! And now you are saying INDIANS killing Kashmirs!!! Is Indian army stationed in Kashmir before!!! You guys started Terrorism, that’s why Army comes to pic, and let me tell you, Militants started killing Kashmiri Hindus. AND now No Kashmiri wants to join Pakistan, as they know very well about the current situation of your country, every day people are dying in the blast!!! Let me make you understand ONE thing, if still you and your people didn’t understand: EVEN YOU FIGHT WITH INDIA FOR THOUSAND YEARS, YOU WILL NEVER GOT AN INCH OF THE KASHMIR, MIGHT LOST ANOTHER PART LIKE YOU DID IN 1971. KASHMIR WAS AN INTEGRAL PART OF INDIA N IT WILL REMAIN THE SAME FOREVER.

    Regarding Babri Mazjid and Gujurat incident, please mind your own business, that’s totally internal affair to INDIA. Muslims in INDIA living in peace and growing with Incredible INDIA. Talking about minority, how many Hindus, Christians live in Pakistan and how many temples, churches are in Pakistan!!! We have 13.4% Muslims in India, who are ready to sacrifice their life for Mother INDIA. We are a secular country and will be in future. And do you have little SHAME blaming INDIA for terrorist, LOL, are you OUT OF YOUR GOD DAMN MIND? You are the f*** terrorists, whole world knows what you did and doing right now!!!

    Please stop hatred on INDIANs, just live in peace and let us live and prosper. We are not animals!!! Is it WORTH fight for nth, as many people are in poverty, dieing becoz of Hunger. Is that a country Muhammad Ali Jinnah dreamed of when Pakistan created??

  • Anonymous

    I thought you write all articles, I see this is taken or has been copied from here.. :(

    http://weapons.technology.youngester.com/2011/11/1971-war-inside-secret.html

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/13911159348461969711 Svetlana Petrova

    @Anonymous
    Oh my god! thanks for letting us know. We published this article on 30th OCt, they copied on 5th nov. I am goinig to raise this issue.

    Thank you!

  • Anonymous

    Many facts in this article are wrong. Readers should refer to the recent book of Sharmila Bose, an Indian on the subject. There has never been an independent enquiry of alleged atrocities by Pakistan Army. The facts provided are from Indian propaganda machinery. Can 24,000 Pakistani soldiers rape half a million Bengali women in about 9 months?

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/13911159348461969711 Svetlana Petrova

    @Anonymous

    We never mentioned on our article that a small number of Pakistani amry raped half a million Bengali women. We said Pakistani army was involved in mass killing and rape of women.

    Please go through the article sources and reports links listed at the end of the article for the verification of the facts.

  • Anonymous

    Thanks a lot Svetlana for the article…

  • Anonymous

    We Indians love Russia and thanks Russians for their support… If we are in the race of being a superpower then its not only the hardwork of our people but also the cooperation and help given by Russians.. Will soon visit Russia to see Kremlin and to travel in Trans Siberian train :)

  • Anonymous

    I am an indian and i am very thankful to russian government and people of russia who helped us in all our bad times and now world is saying that india and russia are perfect partners.I want to appriciate sveltana for her keen observation about india and its 100% correct
    by
    [email protected]

  • Anonymous

    @yasirbm928, ab bolti q band ho gayi….hai koi jawab. India pe ainveyi alligation na lagao..

  • Anonymous

    @Anonymous

    How 24000 army raped half a million women?

    LOL. 90000 pakistani surrendered in East pakistan where 20 thousand were civilian. Which means 5-6 rape by One soldier(exculuding. Pakistani civilian can and did raped many innocent girls and women, and many soldier died and some did not surrendered) in 9 months equal 1 rape in 54 days is simple possible( Especially for pakistani who inherited raping capablity of mughal muslim).

    @ Author.

    Great and best article about foriegn involvement in Indo-Pak war 1971. Thanks.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/06401580763166106909 arnab

    Today’s pakistani says that they did bad in bangladesh. but they don’t have the honest courage to beg marchy for what they did in 1971. They left a country of cry,blood,destruction… they killed most of our Intellectuals including teacher,doctor,engineer,student.so u pak,show ur minimum humanity,ask for pardon nationally for your deeds of 1971.

  • surinder

    Very interesting and very accurate. I was present personally in Moscow when late Mr. DP Dhar was informed (on telephone) by the Soviet Prime Minister about the deployment/movement of American 7th fleet in the Bay of Bengal. That they would prevent its movement – as evidenced above – and that India should finish the conflict as soon as possible. He was assured that the Soviet Ambassador would veto any resolution in the UN Security Council which was not to the liking of India.

    Mr. Dhar had come to Moscow during the height of the conflict to consult with the Soviet authorities in what manner the conflict may evolve and what was the repercussions could be with the involvement of China and US. The British were only bystanders without any serious input to the situationh. With the passing away of Mr. AK Damodaran yesterday, all the witnesses to these events,, except one writing this, have gone to their graves. There are of course historical documents but the verbal history would be lost as there is no serious attempt in India to look at this most significant event whose ripple effects are still vibrating.

  • Anonymous

    ha ha ha NOOB comments here ..especially Pakistani ones…well all i know is that USA sent nuke capable USS Enterprise to bay of Bengal to show its strength against Indian A/C carrier during the naval blockade of East Pakistan .. they soviets then deployed (2 or more i guess) submarines in that area ..a massive confrontation was avoided when US sensed the presence of Soviet Subs in that area and they moved towards the South China sea :D …it was then India saw a need of developing nuclear strike capabilities and went for smiling Buddha in 1974 :D

  • Anonymous

    and y the hell do our comments need approval all the time O_O …y not simply publish it -__-

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/14458516951644107355 RAHUL

    U S is all i know is a good country…….good democrats but i think most of them are corrupt …as pakistan give their money back to us politicians and they happily support pakistan over india…freaks us…bullshit us

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/13911159348461969711 Svetlana Petrova

    Thanks for appreciating the work which has been done in collecting all information and presenting here.

    @Anonymous: We need to moderate comment to filter out the foul languages sometimes used by commentators.

    Thanks :)

  • Dheeman

    It isn’t as simple as in 1971.I’ll tell you what’s it’s like now-The scenario has changed, Bangladesh is slowly slipping into a pro radical Islamic state, thanks to ISI.

    It should have been after 1971, Bangladesh sharing a cordial relations with us like Bhutan.Alas, it is not so.

    Any disgruntled and frustrated Pakistani is free to counter blame and demonize India,they are not a threat.But a handful of ISI operatives fomenting trouble certainly are.

    Soon, you will see a demand for a separate ‘Mughalistan’ as an extension of Bangladesh in the North East.I am a local so I know.Massive Infiltration of poor Muslim Bangladeshis is rampant-They are outnumbering us 3 to 1 in majority of places in Assam.

    The demography of North East India is changing,with ISI radicalizing Muslims,this is a disaster waiting to happen.There is concrete proof of china supporting Northeastern militant groups by supplying arms.

    The situation is getting bad out here,I doubt whether anyone in rest of India really gauges the threat of China-Pak conspiracy by using Bangladesh as the perpetrator. God help us…

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/01985577910459576582 jai

    what all i can say is thank you russia.love you russia.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/01985577910459576582 jai

    thank you for letting me know the fact. very impressive information.

  • Anonymous

    Indians belong to r1a1a strain of people like east Europeans and Russians. This means if Slavic people mate with Indians, the kids will still look Slavic. Negroid Tribes in India account to around 20% (scheduled casts and tribal) of the population the rest is r1a1a, many look non caucasian because of lack of grooming and high UV radiation in India. This is a singular opportunity for Slavic people to increase their population, don’t let Chinese demographic shift inundate your country, invite safe Indian immigrants.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/09920098363456334425 Sumit upadhayay

    india will repay to russia in future.

    thanks russia

  • Anonymous

    Bengal joining with Pakistan was wrong in 1948.Which Sarat Basu,A.K Fazlul Haque,Sattendra Nath Datta,C.R Das Hussain Shurawardhy wanted a Greater Bengal.But dirty politics created to separate two nation theory with religious identity Hindu and Islam.Bengal has nothing to do with religious to separate the Bengali people,as a nation we are Bengali first then religion,what ever you practice.It’s your believe and practice.Unfortunate after independence of Pakistan we used to hear Kashmir,”Mar ke langa Kashmir,Jet ke lega Kashmir”it’s nonsense to escalated religious as weapon,killing all the innocent people.Pakistan attitude towards his neighboring countries must have to be change,old Theology Jihad has different meaning it’s not war it also says about his/her purification of sole.Stop all these bulling stories by Pakistan,now in 2011 Lt.Gen Hamid Gul ISI Director General Said”Two nation one Theory”,if you are brave come to Bangladesh we will bring all those culprit for international court of justice,which thousands of Military escapes from Bangladesh,which Bangladesh has the right to prosecute the.Pakistan politician including religious leaders are culprit and corrupted,they must surrender these people to Bangladesh to prosecute who are still alive.We Bangladesh Arm forces and Muktijuddha are hand in hand with Mitra Bahini India and Russia help us to liberate our country,Thank you very much.
    Pakistan politics is a garbage,no decent people can not stay in Pakistan,maximum of them lair and Fundamentalist Islamic country,who surrender the Uyghur people in exchange of nuclear technology and gave lease Kashmir to communist china.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/04442790470551362519 Shashwat Harsh

    yes really Russians are india’s best frient as if it wasn’t help us in the time of need then we might be lost the war with pakistan & U.S.A in 1971.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/12837212059224268392 Rohan

    @Svetlana Petrova

    Firstly, Brilliant article. I for one have read about this entire episode some years ago in the book Nixon, Indira And India: Politics And Beyond which It is heart warming to see someone write an article about this after so many years as these according to me were the golden period in India Soviet relations in the field of Geo politics. Too bad that during the next renewal of the treaty between Russia and India the clause of ‘security’ was dropped otherwise we would have been a formidable force to counter the Chinese influence in the region. India and China have a lot of border disputes and now the South China Sea haggling has added some more oil in the fire.

    Lastly, it is also strange to compare the situation now and back in the 1970′s. America and Britain threatened to almost nuke India taking Pakistan’s side and now America and Britain are both super friendly with us. Strange eh, success of a country can turn former foes into friends.

    I remember one quote from the book I mentioned above in which when Nixon got to know about ‘India’s invasion of Bangladesh he said “Those Indians are the most aggressive god damn people around”. hahah, if he only cared for human lives.

    Keep churning some more stuff like this.

    Cheers

  • Anonymous

    Great article.
    India and Russia are FRIENDS FOREVER,
    I have a great honour and Love for Russia and it increased by this article.Love Russia.

  • Anonymous

    well…russia has paid the price in war against afghanistan and every body knows the role of pakistan in that war…… can any body counts his parts now….

    now india its your turn we won’t divide you in parts rather we will raise our flag in india and time is not far

    • Anonymous

      Welcome… India is waiting for u brother…

    • Anonymous

      Dude, first survive the bombs that are blasting in your country every other day…then think of attacking any one else…

  • Anonymous

    @Anonymous
    you will never achieve your goal you will eat grass for thousand years and die out slowly from the world.

  • Anonymous

    No way………….Pakistan just wanted dictator and hate brotherhood………liberty and democracy are their enemy……..i luv innocent Pakistani but i hate their…..terror in the name of god

  • Anonymous

    we must know that we the people are mortal, there is no point in fighting……..remember we’ ve one destination..IE..death……

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/05454260399813491815 bhavesh sonwani

    @Svetlana Petrova

    I just love your article, this is a brilliant work. I love Russia and their people a lot.
    without the Russian help things could have been much different. They are our true friend who always help us in every difficult situation we face.
    <3 <3 this is to Russia <3 <3

  • krishnan

    jai jai russia,we all indians(120 crore)always thanks to russia.each other love &help will continue until the end of world.

  • Anonymous

    dekha if we (indians) stand alltogether then no america,england and china can make us apart

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/12512731654594801287 naresh

    i’m naresh an indian… Dividing pakisthan with india is big issue:) in future , if east pakisthan is in existance means , its very problematic for india:-) themself they(pakisthan)dig a pit:-) may be its an idea from thinkers from india to separate pakisthan:-) any ways now bangladesh is safe:-) in proper hands:-)?

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/12512731654594801287 naresh

    during 1971 war :-) russia friendship is essential:-) luckyly they helped us:-) russia is real super power:-) credit goes to indira for her bold decision to join hands with russia:-) present truth is pakisthan trying to take revenge by separating jand k from india:-) not possible:-)

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/12512731654594801287 naresh

    i’m naresh an indian… Dividing pakisthan with india is big issue:) in future , if east pakisthan is in existance means , its very problematic for india:-) themself they(pakisthan)dig a pit:-) may be its an idea from thinkers from india to separate pakisthan:-) any ways now bangladesh is safe:-) in proper hands:-)?

  • Kuladeep Patil

    @Svetlana Petrova thanks swetlana… Long live Rus India friendship.. I Love Rus and Rusians

  • Anonymous

    we peoples(hindus) r very thankful to russians. thanks for ur support. we(hindus) love russia and will always support u whenever u need.

    • ravi teja

      brother it will b nice to say indians , there are many people from different religions ,took part in building india ,hail russia, hail india , hail universal brother hood !

  • Anonymous

    ok ok what did Russia in 1971 and they paid in Afghanistan …pak took the revenge Badley …so where is Russian superpower now ….India helped Russia in afghanistan as well but they both defeated by isi and how many states lost by Russia …

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/15149431546303415782 Andra Tudor

    @Anonymous
    Russia was forced to leave Afghanistan by CIA and ISI supported Mujaheddin. That was the time when ISI learned these tactics which it used against India. I do not think Pakistan alone defeated Russia. ISI has not defeated India in any war. Soviet Union did not breakup because of ISI or Pakistan.

  • sangram

    China is going to milk client states as its own backyard is highly polluted
    through uncontrolled industrialization.

  • Sagar

    India will always support Russia. When whole world was against us , Russia backed India. Love from India. India has changed over these last two decades. Right from Space Technology to Defense System + Economics , India made reasonable advancement. This makes world to take note of India in important matters.

    We will cont. to improve our strategic relationship with Russia by sharing technology + Business with Russia. India has good talent pool , Our scientist should leave NASA and Join ISRO.

    Salute Russia!

    Important Quote :-

    A Person can trust serpent but not American / Britishers. This is coz , they are most opportunistic people on earth.

  • Vigilantcitizen

    Many of you are praising the USSR, which for some of you (and the author) was India’s salvation. The U.S. and Britain were the enemy, opportunists, exploiters etc., ignoring American foreign aid and the British humanitarian assistance helping modernize India.

    You conveniently forget the USSR betrayal of India when the Soviets gave Mao the go ahead and punish India in 1962, which he did, humiliating and defeating the Indian army and seizing Tibet! Read Mao: the Untold story by Jung Chang.

    • revoltman

      True, India should balance its relations carefully.

  • ume

    thank you russia we love you are a true friend