For a country of its size, Bulgaria has given quite a lot to the world. Here are 12 Bulgarian achievements and records in sports, science, culture and industry that you probably didn’t know about!
The Cyrillic alphabet, one of the world’s most widely used writing systems, was invented at the Preslav Literary School in Bulgaria in the 9th century. Today it is used by over 250 million people in Europe and Asia!
Bulgarian American inventor John Atanasoff played a key role in computer history. His non-programmable prototype, the Atanasoff–Berry computer, is recognized as the first electronic digital computer.
The highest-jumping woman in the world is a Bulgarian. Olympic and world champion Stefka Kostadinova still holds the world record in the high jump athletic discipline which she set in 1987.
The oldest gold treasure in history was unearthed at the Varna Necropolis site in northeastern Bulgaria. The treasure dates back more than 6,000 years and consists of the most ancient worked gold items in the world. Amazingly, this collection of global importance is not among the 9 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Bulgaria.
Bulgaria has the best-quality Internet connection in the world according to a combined factor of speed, stability and customer satisfaction. And also the cheapest per megabit!
In 1979, Bulgaria became the sixth country in the world to send an astronaut (cosmonaut) in space. Two Bulgarians were part of the Soviet Union’s Intercosmos space program of manned orbital missions – Georgi Ivanov and Aleksandar Aleksandrov.
Bulgaria produces about 70% of all rose oil in the world. Natural rose oil is a key component of most perfumes. Bulgaria is also the world’s top exporter of lavender, a fragrant herb used in cuisine and aromatherapy.
Bulgarian footballer Hristo Stoichkov won the Ballon d’Or, Europe’s prime individual award in football, in 1994. In 1990, Stoichkov also won the Golden Boot as Europe’s top scorer – and so have done two other Bulgarians, Petar Zhekov (1969) and Georgi Slavkov (1981).
A record of a Bulgarian song has travelled in interstellar space “further than anyone, or anything, in history”. The captivating folk song Izlel e Delyu haydutin, performed by singer Valya Balkanska, is part of the Voyager Golden Record, carried by the Voyager 1 and 2 space probes into the Universe since 1977.
Local yogurt, an integral part of some of the most delicious Bulgarian food classics and refreshing Bulgarian drinks, is internationally renowned, and not without reason. Its natural health benefits owe much to the bacterium Lactobacillus bulgaricus, discovered by Bulgarian microbiologist Stamen Grigorov in 1905.
Bulgarian visual effects designer George Borshukov was a major contributor to the bullet time effect in The Matrix trilogy.
In 1994, the Bulgarian national team made international headlines by finishing fourth at the 1994 FIFA World Cup in the USA. On the way, Bulgaria beat defending world champions Germany 2-1 in a dramatic encounter.
If you are already fascinated, here are some mind-blowing reasons why you should visit Bulgaria. Want more fascinating information on Bulgaria? Simply head over to my website Kashkaval Tourist, where you will find every reason to love Bulgaria. Add your reactions in the comment section below!
What Fuels Addiction?
Millions of people suffer from an addiction of some kind. For many, it’s illegal drugs and narcotics which are incredibly powerful. Others, however, are addicted to substances which are available to buy over the counter. From cigarettes to alcohol, the numbers of people who abuse legal drugs are astounding. Even coffee is exploited with an estimated 90% of Americans consuming caffeine on a daily basis. Everyone’s path is different, yet the result is always the same. So, what causes people from varying backgrounds and cultures develop a craving that is too strong to shake? Here’s what the experts believe.
The Dopamine Effect
Dopamine is the chemical in the brain which is released when people take drugs. What’s dangerous about this substance is how it relates to feelings of happiness and pleasure. In simple terms, it makes a person experience emotions which they have never been familiar with before. And, it’s as if they are heightened and timed by ten. This goes for every substance from heroin to cigarettes. Although certain drugs are further up the pleasure scale, they all encourage the brain to release dopamine. Yes, that goes for sex and food, too.
In short, chemicals are what cause the addiction to take hold in the first place. However, everyone has a threshold, just like pain. Some people can stand a small shot of dopamine without the neurobiological changes impacting the brain. They are the individuals that can use drugs recreationally without developing a severe addiction. Others aren’t as lucky and one hit can be enough for the brain to adapt to the point where it needs a shot of dopamine. The men and women that have a low threshold are more likely to be victims of addiction, and that is a genetic lottery.
Lack Of Consequences
No one can click their fingers and recover within a matter of seconds. Addiction takes a lifetime to overcome. Still, some people don’t have the means to quit because there are zero consequences. At least, they aren’t powerful enough to make an individual want to stop. Smoking is a prime example. Employers don’t issue a probation drug test on a Monday morning, so consuming nicotine isn’t a life wrecker. Sure, smoking can be deadly and cause cancer, yet smokers can’t see the changes so don’t care. Food and alcohol are two other addictions which lack consequences.
It’s cliché but it’s one that is true. Friends can be a bad influence on a person, especially if the individual wants to be liked. Not taking a hit can highlight people as not cool and square, and guys and girls take it to heart. As a result, they experiment with a range of drugs and get hooked in the process. Peer pressure is also a factor in gateway addiction. First, it’s beer, cigarettes or marijuana, and next, it’s cocaine or ecstasy. Before long, it’s something incredibly powerful and potent.
Finally, there are the circumstances of the individual. Lots of addicts have a similar background because homelessness or poverty can force their hand.
How To Deal With A Family Crisis
It’s something that we don’t like to talk about – and understandably so. But if disaster and tragedy strike your family, the sense of shock and unreality can threaten to derail everything in your life. From bankruptcy to wrongful death and from natural disaster to serious injury or illness – of course we don’t want to talk about them. If your worst nightmare does actually come true- who do you turn to? How do you process it? And what do you do to begin some kind of recovery?
Acknowledge That The Worst Happened
It’s perfectly normal to struggle to process your feelings after something unimaginable happens. And many of us want to bury our heads in the sand- but that’s one of the worst things we can do. If we don’t acknowledge we’re under incredible stress, we can’t begin to practise stress management techniques, which can be seriously harmful to our mental and physical health.
Talk About It
Approaching a tragic or difficult topic can be hard, especially if you want to speak to someone who hasn’t had experience of anything similar themselves. There are no hard and fast rules about this, but talking about it will help you process what’s happening. Support groups can offer a lifeline in connecting you with other individuals in similar situations.
Take Care Of Yourself
Self-care can feel trivial, irreverent and even too self-indulgent in the wake of a huge impactful event. However, it’s important to still take care of the basics – exercise, a reasonably healthy diet and not falling into the traps of drugs and alcohol as a false escape to your problems. Try to limit nicotine and caffeine, which can exacerbate stress. Your health may be fragile so taking time to take care of yourself is warding off further problems at a difficult time.
Access The Right Support
If you need legal counsel, make sure you do your homework. Don’t be pressured to rush into a decision, but find a firm with a track record in the kind of specialist representation you need, such as GJEL who are experienced in wrongful death suits. Choosing the wrong people to work with can mean further stress at exactly the wrong time.
Do Something Positive
At a time when the world appears to have been unspeakably cruel to you, you have two choices. Either react with hate and bitterness, and you get sucked into a negative cycle which can quite literally destroy you. Or make the choice to give out something positive, no matter how small. Taking positive steps can restore a feeling of control for you and make you feel that the world isn’t such a hostile place. Look at volunteering opportunities, or do something such as giving blood. Little things can make a big difference to your mindset.
Ask For Help
Don’t feel it’s wrong or shameful to ask for help when you need it- it’s actually a sign of great strength. Find a mental health professional if you feel that you need support to move on from devastating events. Friends, relatives or spiritual leaders can also be very important at this time – remember that you don’t have to cope alone.
Medicine: From The Study Of Gods To Healing Robots
Throughout history, civilizations all over the world have sought to fight disease, postpone death and relieve suffering. After all, as being healthy is by far the best and only way to enjoy a longer life, it appears evident that doctors would have developed fascinating medical approaches and knowledge throughout time. The history of medicine, however, is a tale of mankind evolution, knowledge and, more often than not, a tale of beliefs. It is because today modern doctors believe that science has most answers — and will one day have all answers — that the role of the healer has changed from a holy figure to an experienced scientist. While there have been many eureka moments, the story of healing the body is not only a story of unsung medical heroes, but also a portrait of how human beings perceive their world.
The Gods made me sick
The earliest documented doctors that archaeology has revealed were Egyptian physicians 5,000 years ago. While there might have been doctors before that time in other countries, Egyptian papyri are for now the earliest evidence of medical knowledge. However, these writings attribute the responsibility of the health of the people to the pharaoh. In those times, healing methods were groups in sacred centres and consisted mainly of religious rites and ceremonies designed to ask the Gods for health. Another belief of the time was that diseases were the result of an angry deity. Consequently, the ceremonies needed to appeal to the Gods and offer a sacred apology for the offence. The belief that the divine could influence human health lasted for centuries, as even in the Middle Age, healing sacrifices were still encouraged in Pagan communities.
Studying the cure
Nowadays the approach to finding a cure has changed greatly. Scientists, and especially lab scientists, rely primarily on the observational study of patients in the retrospective of existing data as well as the investigation outside of clinical trials to find evidence of a cure’s success. This scientific process is relatively new in the world of medicine and dates back from the Industrial Revolution. In fact, people invented the steam engine before they understood how to diagnose and make more effective medications! But with the evolution of the observational field, more and more medical professions dive into the complex relations between the body and the mind, from a standard GP to a specialist neurologist.
Can robots heal us?
Finally, the evolution of medicine isn’t over yet. There is still a lot that doctors don’t understand, and a lot that they can’t treat. Consequently, new healing methods are discussed all over the world. Doctors have stopped waiting for a divine answer. Instead, they have been building nanobots, which will be able to navigate the body to repair internal damage locally. What sounds still like a sci-fi story is expected to happen by 2030. Will the human health be in the hands of robots? As surgeons already rely on robotic technology in the operating room, internal bots could be the next big heal!
In the end, the story of medicine is still to be continued. But it remains, for now, a story that highlights the resourcefulness of mankind and its desire to understand and manage the cause of all diseases and maybe, one day, defeat death too.
What Fuels Addiction?
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Medicine: From The Study Of Gods To Healing Robots
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