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Tamil Nationalism, Ceylon and Imperalism – The World Reporter
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Tamil Nationalism, Ceylon and Imperalism



Sri Lanka Ehtnic Communities and Religions

Source: University of Texas Library

The recent comment of Mahinda Rajapaksa, the President of Sri Lanka on Modi winning absolute majority in the general elections of India indicates his relaxation that now DMK and AIADMK will be a force to reckon within India’s foreign policy with Sri Lanka. But little did he seem to think about the hidden message that his reluctance to investigate in Tamils atrocities is signifying through this.

This reluctance includes investigating into the 26 year long military campaign in the north of Jaffna where gross human rights violations have been done by both the sides. This long civil war ended with the death of LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) leader Velupillai Prabhakaran in 2009, but taking with it, the life of Rajiv Gandhi, India’s former Prime Minister, the reputation of India Peace keeping Force (IPKF) and an estimated 100,000 lives as per the official figure. The issue of UN Committee for investigation in this dastardly affair has deteriorated the very fibre of two neighbours whose histories have been deeply connected socially and religiously as well. India voted in favour of resolution under Jayalalitha’s pressure first, then abstained second time and did not attend the last Commonwealth meeting held in Lanka, which was not less than the last nail in the coffin of India-Lanka relations, all under DMK and AIADMK’s pressure. But with the stable government back in the centre, these relations seem to be rejuvenated with the hope of India’s support toward Lanka.

LTTE and Tamil Nationalism

Throughout the nineteenth century there was little evidence of sharp political or nationalist trend but fears of Sinhalese Buddhists and Tamil Hindus of proselytising efforts of Christian missionaries were creating a stir in this quite milieu of Buddhists and Hindus. Eventually by the end of nineteenth century there was a rise of the leaders of both of these communities essentially for constitutional reform. With the recommendations of Colebrooke-Cameron Commission, representatives of Sinhalese, Ceylon Tamil, Burgher and local European communities were elected on the behest of governor as an eyewash democratic process similar to Montagu Chelmsford reforms in India.

This representation of power equation initiated the conflict between these two ethnicities. For a matter of fact, this tension dates back to the time when Britons came to Sri Lanka and merged three sovereign states of Portuguese and Dutch forming one Ceylon, now Sri Lanka creating indifference between two communities which was visible in the attempt of Colebrooke reforms which was formulated to give Kandyan Sinhalese recognition in the state. As large provinces proved difficult to administer, Britons divided the country by demarcating a Northern Province and Northern Central Province, which further asserted the separate nature of Kandyan Sinhalese. The Grea Kandyan Rebellion of 1848 was the last attempt of Kandyan Sinhalese Chief to assert that separateness.

With the completion of unification of country, the last isolated area in north of Island inhabited mostly by Ceylon Tamils was linked through railway lines from Colombo to Jaffna and an attempt was made to establish communication between low country Sinhalese traders and Kandyan Sinhalese population. This interconnectivity led the Ceylon Tamil to Colombo in search of better jobs, opportunities and eventually the demand of proper representation of Executive Council. The divide among various ethnicities were there since beginning and the first instance of this divide was visible with the appointment of Poonambalam Arunachalam, a Tamilian as a representative of both Tamils and Sinhalese after Donoughmore Commission rejected the idea of communal representation and reformed legislative council.

British Governor William Manning is considered responsible for the formation of All India Ceylon Congress, a product of Tamil nationalism and many writers have quoted him responsible to this Tamil-Sinhala divide. But as the history suggests, this divide was always there alive. It was just the repression of British governance which initiated the feeling of nationalism. Where Nationalism for Sinhalese was a separate state, for Tamils it initiated through the ladder of political power struggle.

With such complex structure of ethnicity, political representation and other such issues of an underdeveloped country, British left India is 1948 and amid this turmoil came the controversial Citizenship Act of 1948 where anyone born in Ceylon had to prove that they are third generation immigrants which resulted in disqualification of 70,000 Tamils, about 11% of the population, which indeed was their actual representation.

The another factor which strengthened the feeling of Tamil Nationalism was Sinhala Only Act 1956 which made Sinhala the only official language of the country and Tamils who did not know Sinhala had to leave their jobs. This was not though the first attempt to introduce Sinhala as an official language, the first attempt being made by J.R Jayawardene in 1944 in State Council which was rejected due to proper representations of Europeans and Tamils in the Council.

In the backdrop of such discrimination occurred the first ethnic riots in 1956 named as Gal Oya riots where minority Tamils were massacred by a Sinhala mob led by a junior minister and 150 people lost their lives while protesting for the discriminatory policies of government. 1958 widespread riots on Tamils was the epitome of Tamil struggle in the country and soon afterwards the demand of Tamil Eelam (a separate nation of Tamil) started gaining momentum. Tamil parties called for regional autonomy and in 1975 all parties merged together to form Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF). Its first resolution adopted at Vaddukodai calling for “Free, Sovereign, Secular Socialist State of TAMIL EELAM” marked the official beginning of Tamil separatism.

TULF won 18 seats in 1977 elections in Tamil dominated districts of North and East making it the largest opposition party in Parliament. With a force to reckon with , the concept of District Development Council came forth in 1980 decentralising power but due to differences this scheme was scrapped off. In 1983 the Sixth Amendment was passed and required Tamil members of parliament and Tamils in public office to take the oath of allegiance to the unitary state of Sri Lanka. The Sixth Amendment forbade advocating a separate state even by peaceful means. Consequently, the TULF was expelled from the parliament for refusing to take the oath.


A outfit with hit and run tactic had started taking form outside these political circles under Vellupillai Prabahakaran,a student leader and this separatist campaign got its support from a former British employee named Anton Balasingham from London. Prabhakaran, together with Chetti Thanabalasingam, a well known criminal from Kalviyankadu, Jaffna formed the Tamil New Tigers (TNT) in 1972, their symbol being a Tiger. Another movement called Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students (EROS) was formed in London and Manchester considered as the backbone of the Tamil struggle in Lanka. It became the basis of the Eelamist logistical organization, later taken over entirely by LTTE.

Outfit’s first major operation was the assassination of the mayor of Jaffna, Alfred Duraiappah in 1975 by Prabhakaran which initiated a civil war that lasted 26 years and is still having an impact in the North of Sri Lanka.

The civil war was a product of British scheming of bringing together communities which never had a link just for the sake of ease of administration which worked as the seed of conflict, saw its growth with Policy Standardization Acts of Sinhala dominated government in the center which lead to the suppression of Tamils eventually culminating in one of the deadliest ethnic conflict of world history.

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Top 10 Simple Health Changes To Boost Your Well-Being



It does not matter how old you are, where you live, or what your occupation is, your health should always be a top priority. However, most of us are a little bit guilty of letting our well-being slide from time to time. With that being said, read on to discover some of the simple ways you can give your health a boost today.

  1. Get rid of at least one item in your life that contains toxic chemicals – You may be shocked by just how many items in your life contain toxic chemicals. This includes everything from air fresheners to bed sheets. Get rid of one of these items and replace it with something natural instead. This is something you should make a habit to do every few months or so. You will be surprised by just how much of a difference this can make. 
  2. Deep breathe for at least five minutes – Throughout the day, you should make sure you take the opportunity to deep breathe for at least five minutes. Why? Well, there have been numerous studies that have shown that deep breathing can help to lower stress hormone levels. This means that you will feel better, get an improved night’s sleep, and you will have less anxiety too.
  3. Drink more water – You probably expected this to be on the list, but the importance of drinking more water should never be ignored. Your body needs water for almost every function. If you are dehydrated, this could be the cause of headaches, pains, aches, and a number of other symptoms.
  4. Have one veggie night per week – A lot of people eat far too much meat, red meat especially. So, why not have a veggie night once a week? Not only is this good for your health, but it will be good for your bank balance too. There are so many great recipes online that can give you ideas regarding tasty and creative dishes that do not incorporate any sort of meat or fish. Once you start off with one night per week, you may then decide that you want to up it to two nights, and so on. However, it always helps to start off small so that it is easier and more manageable, and you can then get used to it.
  5. Sign up for an online pharmacy – Nowadays, you can easily order your prescriptions and medications over the Internet via an online pharmacy. This can help you to boost your health because it ensures you never experience delays with your medication. If you are someone who often doesn’t take their recommended course of tablets because you cannot get to the doctors in time for a repeat prescription, then this is definitely a good suggestion for you. Your medication will be delivered to your door with a click of a button.
  6. Make a dedicated effort to lower your stress levels – There is no denying that we live in a very stress-filled world at the moment! The world we live in is one that has heaps of pressure, and it can be difficult to stay on top of everything and keep those stress levels low. However, it is vital that you find a way to do so. After all, if you don’t adrenal fatigue and health can start to take a tumble, which is the last thing you want. For those who are unaware, adrenal fatigue relates to a group of different symptoms that impact people who are under a lot of physical, emotional, or mental stress. From being a single parent to having a stressful job, there are a lot of different reasons why you may be struggling. Therefore, we recommend that you look for different ways to reduce those stress levels so that you can enjoy a more calming and peaceful life. Whether it is doing some breathing techniques or taking more regular breaks so you can have moments for yourself, there are a lot of different ways that you can make sure you are keeping your stress levels to a minimum. The importance of this should not be overlooked, as stress can impact our mental and physical health in so many different ways. 
  7. Do something nice for someone every day – You will be surprised by how good this makes you feel, and by how much this has a positive impact on your health. It’s all about mental well being. When you do something nice for another person, you are benefitting their health, as well as your own. First and foremost, there is no denying that it feels good to hear some nice words for someone or to get a helping hand when you need it. You feel recognised and appreciated, and this is something we all need. At the same time, doing something nice for someone else and seeing their reaction can make you feel amazing too. After all, doing something good for someone is a gift for yourself at the same time. You will find that the deed continues throughout the day, making you feel great and happy within yourself. 
  8. Incorporate some movement into your commute – If you do not have an active job, this is particularly important. Sitting at a computer all day can be bad for your health. One way to combat this is by incorporating some movement into your commute. If you can walk or bike to work, you should give this a go. If not, start parking your car further away from your place of work so that you have to walk there and back. You should also start using the stairs instead of the elevator whenever you can.
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  10. Keep a journal – Last but not least, keeping a journal is good for a person’s mental health. You should write down your thoughts. It doesn’t need to be a long entry; you can simply jot down a few bullet points every evening. This will help you to articulate your thoughts so that they do not wear you down. After all, it can be very difficult to sleep if you have lots on your mind. A lot of experts advise this approach for people who suffer from insomnia. One of the main reasons why a lot of people struggle to get the hours of sleep they need is because they cannot shut off when they go to sleep; their minds are still going at a million miles per hour. They are thinking about what they need to do the following day and any worries or concerns that they may have. Because of this, it very much makes sense to keep a journal so you can offload some of these thoughts and worries and you can have a much more restful night of sleep. Once you get into the habit of doing this, you will see that it actually does make a significant difference when it comes to drifting off and enjoying a good night of rest. 

So there you have it: some of the best ways to give your health a boost. The suggestions that have been provided are really simple and easy, so there is no excuse not to give yourself a bit of TLC. we are sure that you will start to notice a difference as time goes on. However, as is the case with anything, it requires patience and persistence. You cannot expect to turn your health around in one night.

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Why Buy A Business, Rather Than Start One



There are good and bad sides to buying a business and starting your own business from scratch. For lots of people, the positives of buying an established business outweigh the positives of starting a business. Here are the reasons why buying an existing business could be the right choice.

Easier To Secure Finance

All businesses will need finance. Unless you can fund your business yourself, you’ll need to secure financing from investors. Most lenders will be more willing to lend money to an established business that they can already see is doing well, rather than risk an unknown factor. 

Income From Day One

One of the downsides of starting a business is that most start-ups will go through an early stage where they don’t make much, if any, money. For some entrepreneurs, this stage can last for several years. 

During this stage, you will need to pay out for things like your premises, as well as equipment, installation of equipment, stock, materials, fixtures and fittings, legal and professional fees, a license, uniforms, and more. 

If you don’t have finance in place or another form of income, this stage can be very tough for a new business owner. If you buy a business, you can start earning from day one, and avoid this tricky period where you might be out of pocket.  

Established Brand

When you buy a business that already exists, you are also buying into a brand that is already known, recognizable, and has a track record. You get the business complete with all the trademarks, copyrights, and websites associated with it, as well as the business locations

This means that your business will already have customers, lenders, suppliers, and other contacts that are confident in the business already. 

Instant Customer Access

An existing business also has customers already, which can help you succeed straight away. You can use a range of strategies and marketing to build on the existing customer base, but won’t have to struggle to build a customer base from scratch. 

Established Network Of Contacts

When you start a business from scratch, a lot of your time and energy has to be put into building up a network of contacts. 

All businesses need to have supplier and marketing contacts, so buying an existing business that already has those contacts in place allows you to hit the ground running.

Like money lenders, suppliers and marketing companies are more likely to offer you more favourable terms if your business has been around for a while and they know it.  

Focus On Growing The Business

When an entrepreneur starts a new business, they will have to put a lot of their energy into getting their business off the ground. This takes a lot of time and can be very tiring. 

On the other hand, when you take over a business that is already established, you’ll be freer to focus on the areas of the business that most need your attention, aiding the growth of the business as a whole. 

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Temperature Controlled Transport: What is it?



Transport logistics is not only based on transporting goods from point A (origin) to point B (destination), but also involves other aspects that are not so well known to end users.

For instance, a factor that can be decisive is the temperature-controlled transport of goods. Such is the importance of this that there are logistics companies specialized in the distribution of products sensitive to thermal changes.

These companies have vehicles equipped with systems that can maintain the right temperature, keeping the product safe through temperature fluctuations.

What is temperature controlled transport?

A temperature-controlled shipment is one that guarantees the cold chain of the product, without it being subjected to sudden changes in temperature and always without exceeding the values of a safety interval.

The purpose of this cold chain is to guarantee the optimum condition of the product from the time it is picked up until it is delivered. This is why temperature controlled transport is in such high demand for proper product maintenance.

Cold chain in food

The cold chain is a key factor in food safety since it guarantees the preservation of food in optimum conditions.

Food safety is closely linked to health, to the point of being a right recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 

Therefore, if the cold chain was to be broken during the distribution, the food could not be delivered and would need to be discarded.

Several factors are involved in keeping the food cold chain intact:

  • Storage in cold or refrigerated chambers.
  • Transport in temperature-controlled vehicles
  • Storage in display cabinets or refrigerated chambers at point of sale
  • Other goods requiring temperature-controlled transportation

Whenever we talk about refrigerated transport, we usually think of the food cold chain, but there are other types of goods that also need temperature-controlled logistics to maintain their conditions intact until they reach their destination.

The main goods that need to be transported under temperature control are flowers, chemical or biological products, medicines, live animals or photographic films.


There are certain medicines that need to be stored and transported at low temperatures so that they do not lose their curative properties. 

An example is vaccines that have weakened live viruses and if subjected to sudden changes in temperature, these microorganisms would die and their effectiveness would be null.

Chemical or biological products

Some chemical or biological goods also need to be transported in an environment that guarantees a stable temperature from collection to delivery.

These goods are of mere importance since they can be considered dangerous. Hence, they must be treated very carefully.

Live animals

The current legislation also contemplates that the transportation of live animals over long distances must be subject to a temperature control that ensures values between 5 and 30 degrees Celsius with an interval of up to +/- 5ºC depending on the outside temperature.


Something as delicate as flowers also need to be transported under optimum temperature conditions so that their scent and beauty are maintained at the point of delivery. 

Besides, flowers are a very apt simile for the importance of temperature-controlled transport in today’s logistics because the ultimate goal is the welfare and health of humans and animals. Undoubtedly, a very necessary end.

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