Connect with us

Technology

Top 10 Science Superpowers of the Modern World: An Analysis

Published

on

German Transrapid TR 09 Maglev
German Transrapid TR 09, photo by Állatka
A nation which has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes, in more than one region of the globe at a time, and so may plausibly attain the status of global hegemony. Besides the requirement of a strong militarily, a power to become a super power needs a strong diplomatic and stable government, strong economy, a focused foreign policy, strong pool of scientists and strong base of research and education, and sufficiency in food and resources. 
We researched and analysed the potential super power of the world in one of our previous article “Top 10 Superpowers of The World” which is also one of the most read article on our journal. In this article we are going to analyse and list Top 10 science super powers who are growing bigger and may challenge the conventional science superpowers in the near future. 
Research Papers Published by Countries
Research Papers Published by Countries, 2009. Click to Enlarge.

United States of America

United States has been the lone super power since the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991. It remains the unchallenged global leader in science, research and innovation whose foundation has been set up by the high quality universities and educational institutes. Having seven universities in the list of top 10 universities in the world, and forty seven universities in top 100. United States of America is able to attract the creamiest layer of students from all around the world. A robust research environment, facilities, scholarships and high salaried jobs makes United States one of the best destinations for higher education.
Not only universities, a large number of public and private companies like NASA and IBM, are making differences in the society by their state of the art pioneering researches in almost every field. Strongest research area of US is biotechnology.

China

Largest in terms of population and second largest in terms of research papers published, China is the potential threat to United States’ supreme position in the world of science. China has been able to establish 11 universities in the list of top 400 universities in the world. Among which two are in the top 100 universities in the world. Number of research paper published in 2009 has seen a massive 400% growth when compared to year 2000. China’s main strength is material science. China has also seen growth in almost all the areas of research since 2003. China is leading the “space race” in Asia challenging Japan and India. China is also proud to have fastest train in the world CRH380A with its top speed of 302 mph (486.02 Km/hr) breaking the 300 mph barrier. 
However, the quality of research has been the issue in China. The country is also struggling with the attribute of innovation specially in the electronics, auto and military research fields. China has been accused by a number of organisations and companies around the world for copying their products be it vehicles, combat air crafts, electronic devices or other sensitive technologies. 
China's share of world publications by sectors.
China’s share of world publications by sectors. Click to enlarge

United Kingdom

Another country which has a vast presence in the pool of top universities in the world after United States is United Kingdom. United States and United Kingdom have been dominating the list of top 10 universities in the world almost unchallenged for ages. Oxford, Cambridge and Imperial College of London are the names which have become classic over the centuries. UK has made extensive contribution towards early science and setup the foundation of various chapters of science creating opportunities for further research. Today United Kingdom is the leader in Europe when it comes to the number of publications, which is followed by Germany, France, Italy and Spain in the respective order. 
UK’s scientific collaboration with other countries and European Union will ensure its position safe as one of the leaders in the world of science. UK’s impressive 25% growth in the number of publication shows it still has an active scientific resources. 

India

One of the fastest growing economy, largest democracy, and many such facts makes India a potential superpower. With every analyst in this world having higher expectation with this nation, India has been relatively slow. However, being slow in the field of science did not prevent this country to astonish the billions in the world time to time with its scientific achievements. Which includes India attaining self sufficiency in food grains, becoming one of the largest exporter of food, developing a highly sophisticated space program which enabled India to find water on the moon’s surface, indigenously developing nuclear program and military hardware, and high quality exports in biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, and information-technology services.
Indian institutes and universities are dedicated almost equally among all the major fields, still India’s one of the strongest area of research is Chemistry. If we compare India’s share of world’s publication from 1999-2003 with India’s share of world’s publication from 2004-2008 then we see almost all the sectors of research have experienced growth except Agricultural science, which is one of India’s spine. 
India's share of world publications by sectors.
India’s share of world publications by sectors. Click to enlarge
India’s contribution towards science and to the fields of mathematics, astrophysics, chemistry and life sciences dates at least two millenniums back. Later we saw contributions from Aryabhatta, Bhaskara and Brahmagupta who laid the foundation of the modern physics much before widely believed Europeans.
India once again with its one of the largest pool of scientists in the world is tying to excel in the world of science by catching up with leaders. India’s recent contribution to science is rising steeply in contrast with the other nations if we compare each nations relative year-by-year growth since 1981 at a volume of publications standard of 100. 
India's Scientific Year by Year Growth
Year by Year growth of India compared to G8 nations, Thomson Reuters
The behaviour of the India’s curve shows why some analysts have referred to India as a “sleeping giant”. India with its great capacity was sleeping till 1990s as soon as it got up, its brilliant system almost immediately started giving the output almost on par with other nations of G8. If this trend continues then India’s productivity will overtake G8 nations in another 5 to 7 years.

Brazil

Brazil is another important member of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China). With its economy on the rise, Brazil also contributed towards science and technology with its one of the major focus on improving environment. Brazil’s strength has been recognised in biological sciences, including bio fuel production. In the year of 2005, Brazil launched “Empresa Brasiliera de Aeronáutica’s Ipanema” world’s first commercial aircraft to run exclusively on bio fuels.
The world at present is not much aware of the science and technology base in Latin America. Mexico’s proximity to Unites States and Brazil’s rising economy has caused this region to develop a solid science base. Another giant in the South, Argentina is also in the race and catching up with Mexico and Brazil. 
From the year 2000 to 2009, Brazil has experienced a 210% increase in the number of research papers published. Such an enormous growth does indicate young pool of scientists, new force of resources adding up, better efficiency in output from universities and institutions. Brazil’s year by year growth is much better than other countries in BRIC namely, India and Russia. 
Culturally and traditionally close to west Europe mainly Portugal, having land connection with United States and almost being at the same time zone as of US brings Brazil on a advantageous position to collaborate with the world leaders of science and technology. Brazil has become the representative of science and technology power from Latin America.

Russia

If India was the “sleeping giant” which recently got awaken, Russia was an active and awakened giant which is going to sleep. After the collapse of Soviet Union, Russia experienced catastrophe and its contribution towards science seems to decline. Russia as Soviet Union is the one who began the new era of science and technology by surprising the world in 1957 by the launch of Sputnik satellite. In the “space race” Soviet Union had successfully outplayed United States. 
Russia has become the victim of critical brain drain, where a large number of talented resources left their country in search of better facilities, salary and funding. After the collapse of Soviet Union, science and technology has become less preferred destination for the younger generation compared to petroleum industry, language, and politics. This dynamic shift has resulted into the ageing of the Soviet scientists who are  in Russia as young generation is not able to reinforce their science power. In 2009, Russia experienced only 3.57% growth in the number of papers published when compared to 2000.
Russia has proved its supremacy once, and most probably it will once again jump back on the track of scientific research. Russia’s main strengths have been the core physics and space science, whereas the current trend is of life sciences, nano technology and environment where Russia needs to do a lot of catching up. Russia understands its lacking and has been collaborating in research mainly with Germany, US, France and East European nations to gain momentum.
Russia has been doing really good in military science and technology and have been developing state of the art weapons still giving tough competition to United States. Russia is the largest exporter of its weapons to India compared to any other country, and India is the largest importer of weapons in the world. Which shows the quality and superiority of Russian weapons. As Russia’s economy improves and undergoes constructive reforms with its wider integration in the world trade, its highly enthusiastic public who has a sense of competition with the west specially with United States will definitely help boost its research programs bringing it back on the track. 

Japan

Japan is a G7 economy and enjoyed the status of being world’s second largest economy for a long period of time until it was overtaken by China and India recently by GDP (PPP). Japan has been traditionally the innovation centre and brought surprising and attractive products both in automobile and electronic sectors. Japanese companies till date have been bringing out their innovative hybrid cars which exhibit higher fuel efficiency.  Japan also boasts third fastest rail in the world Shinkansen with a top speed of 275 mph (442.57 Km/h). Scientifically Japan had been the super power of Asia for a long time until it gave that position to China with India and South Korea almost catching up. 
Japan’s economy peaked in 1980s and since then there hasn’t been any appreciable increase or decrease in its volume of papers published. Just like Russia, Japan also experienced only a single digit growth in the number of papers published. From the year 2000 to the year 2009, there was only 8.3% growth. However, unlike Russia, Japan had always been ahead in modern science, be it nanotechnology or electronics. It already has an established base of high quality education and pioneer research labs. Its 13 universities are in top 400 in the world. With 2 in top 100 and 5 in top 200 universities in the world. All what Japan needs is human resources and encouraged young scientists. India and China produces one of the largest first class high quality resources in the world every year. All that said about Japan, it has a potential to become a favourite destinations for young Chinese and Indians who usually head towards US which is quite far. Japan can also collaborate with losing Russia, South Korea and rising South East Asia.

Germany, France, and Italy (and Spain)

These have been the traditional European power and were the super powers along with United Kingdom before second world war. Germany was a highly industrialized nation, unfortunately after the war, most of its sophisticated industries were taken over by west and Soviet Union for their benefits. 
Out of the three countries, Germany is leading in science and technology followed by France and Italy, with its volume of papers published in 2009 almost reaching close to that of United Kingdom. Germany had stunned the western powers and Soviet Union by its sophisticated weapons, air crafts and V2 rockets during the second world war. 
Today these countries within European Union have formed much collaborative educational system welcoming other prospective students from European Union. Universities from these countries invites students from countries like India and China in high number and fund their education. This way these universities are able to function with its full capacity.
Germany’s strength has been mechanical engineering in its various forms like aerospace and automobile, German cars like BMW and second fastest train in the world Transrapid TR-09 with the top speed of 279 mph (449 Km/h), which is faster than the fastest train in Japan, makes it one of the advanced developed country, and the region as a whole, in science.

Please share and join the discussion on facebook by clicking the “Like” below.
Also follow us on Twitter @TWRnews
Visit The World Reporter for discussion on this post. Or you may like to know what others are saying on this topic.
Use your ← → (arrow) keys to browse

Sanskar Shrivastava is the founder of international students' journal, The World Reporter. Passionate about dynamic occurrence in geopolitics, Sanskar has been studying and analyzing geopolitcal events from early life. At present, Sanskar is a student at the Russian Centre of Science and Culture and will be moving to Duke University.

Continue Reading
Comments

Technology

How does Technology Affect the Working Environment?

Published

on

Technology-in-2019

Throughout history, machines and technology have changed the way that we work across nearly every industry. From the industrial era, all the way through to the modern age, it would seem that technology has improved working conditions significantly. The impact that it has had is immense. Some of the main changes can be found below.

Speed and Efficiency

Workers in this day and age are far more productive than they have ever been. The impact that technology has had on work, both in communication and manufacturing has increased the rate of production and the speed at which business can occur. Tech in the workplace has also helped workers to become far more efficient. What once took hours can now take minutes. Messages can be sent to clients across the world and proposals and payments can also be transferred instantly. Support for workers can also be found online.  For example, personal injury claim legal help can be obtained online and you can file a claim within minutes.

Working Together as One

Team coordination really has never been easier. When you look at online communication tools and technology you will soon see that people can now work together much more closely. Collaboration is also much simpler to achieve. Even when colleagues are not able to be in the same workplace physically, teams can hold meetings through video technology. They are also able to work on the same documents through file-sharing platforms such as Google Drive and this is fantastic to say the least.

Technology and Office Culture

Everyone knows that tech in the workplace is changing. Beer is available on tap in some workplaces and others are offering video games as a means for their team to relax at the end of a hard day. Open offices are also a trend. The mere idea of creating a better company culture can now be used to lure workers who are in-demand and this doesn’t look to be going away anytime soon. Technology in the workplace has also made it much more possible to work remotely. Companies need to create incentives to try and keep their workers happy and to also keep them drawn into the office.

Live where You Work

One of the biggest impacts of tech in the workplace is the workplace itself. Most jobs require you to clock in and work on-site but there really are so many open positions for those who telecommunicate, and people can now work from home more than ever before. Of course, with so many changes being made it’s not hard to see that so much is being done to try and help support this movement and some companies have even put in the effort to try and make sure that they give their teams the chance to work from home permanently. Only time will tell what the future holds, but right now it looks like tech has had a huge impact on the workplace and the effects are going to be felt for years to come.

Prev postNext post
Use your ← → (arrow) keys to browse

Continue Reading

Business

Quotes To Get Your Boss To Take Cyber Security Seriously

Published

on

cyber security

There is no denying that data security is something that all businesses need to take seriously today. Unfortunately, there are many companies out there who are failing to do so. This is because they have the “it won’t happen to me attitude.” However, many companies have closed after a data breach. Therefore, to save the future of your business and your job, try to convince your boss with these quotes…

We are going to start with a quote from the founder and CEO of Blue Lava, Inc, Demitrios ‘Laz’ Lazarikos, who talks about implementing a modern program on cyber risk. From privileged access management services to network segregation, we need to stay ahead of the times with our strategy.

“A modern cybersecurity program must have Board and Executive level visibility, funding, and support. The modern cybersecurity program also includes reporting on multiple topics: understanding how threats impact revenues and the company brand, sales enablement, brand protection, IP protection, and understanding cyber risk.”

If your boss thinks he or she is above the law, William Malik, VP and Research Area Director for Information Security at Gartner has a great quote on the matter…

“A business will have good security if its corporate culture is correct. That depends on one thing: tone at the top. There will be no grassroots effort to overwhelm corporate neglect.”

Chairman of the Ponemon Institute, Dr. Larry Ponemon, has spoken about insider attacks. Insider attacks – whether malicious or accidental – are the most common. However, they’re not being taken as seriously as they should…

“We discovered in our research that insider threats are not viewed as seriously as external threats, like a cyberattack. But when companies had an insider threat, in general, they were much more costly than external incidents. This was largely because the insider that is smart has the skills to hide the crime, for months, for years, sometimes forever.”

While some business owners do implement cyber security controls, there seems to be a lack of thought behind the strategy that is implemented, and this is what Dr. Chris Pierson, CEO at Binary Sun Cyber Risk Advisors has said on the matter…

“What we should actually be doing is thinking about what are our key controls that will mitigate the risks. How do we have those funneled and controlled through the team that we have, how do we work through that in a well-formatted, formulated process and pay attention to those controls we have chosen? Not a continual, add more, add more, add more.”

One of the biggest problems with data security is that a lot of business owners believe it is nothing more than an IT issue. Steven Chabinsky, Global Chair of Data, Privacy & Cybersecurity at White & Case LLP, has put this into perspective…

“Thinking of cybersecurity solely as an IT issue is like believing that a company’s entire workforce, from the CEO down, is just one big HR issue.”

So there you have it: some of the most compelling quotes out there regarding cyber security today. We hope these will help you to convince your boss that it’s critical!

Use your ← → (arrow) keys to browse

Continue Reading

Technology

Get The Most Out Of Your Phone With These Tips

Published

on

mobile apps

Most of us live with a smartphone or other device attached to our arm. Technology is such a big part of our lives these days and smartphones in particular continue to thrive and grow in popularity as time goes by.

But are you truly making the most of your smartphone? Today we are going to take a look at smartphones and the tools you can use to truly get the most use out of it.

1. Documents in one place

One of the greatest things about having a mobile phone is that you always have it with you. If you work in an office environment and often need access to files and documents on the go, be sure to use Google Drive and OneDrive. These cloud based services allow you to create, edit, and share word documents and spreadsheets wherever you are. It will make your life so much easier and your working days much more productive.

2. Shazam

Not the popular superhero, but the app. If you want to really make the most of your phone, download this magical app. If you are ever listening to a song on the radio or on TV, you can turn the app on and it will tell you exactly what it is.

3. Stay safe

Have you ever wondered what would happen if you lost your phone? Well, if you did lose your phone you might not be able to get it back because the person who finds it won’t know who you are. But, what if there’s an easy way to remedy this? By putting your phone number on your lock screen, anyone who finds your phone will be able to contact you and get it back to you safely.

4. Use Accuweather

There is nothing worse than going outside without a coat on and suffering in the rain. As well as the small losses like this, you want to avoid going outside while storms such as Storm Dennis are around, and Accuweather will send you alerts meaning that you will always know what’s going on outside.

5. Get the best data deal

There’s no point having an amazing smartphone that can do countless things online if you don’t have a great data plan. Use a company like honest mobile to get yourself unlimited data and this will mean you never worry about losing data.

6. Stay in the loop

Although often the news is pretty boring, it is still important for you to know what’s going on in the world so you can make decisions. One of the best tips we have is getting a news app on your phone that will send out Breaking News alerts to you when they happen.

7. Use Mail Drop

Our mobile phones are amazing little gadgets and they almost run like a mini computer, but there is one thing a mobile phone isn’t the best with: files. If you are looking to email a file to someone and it is too large, if you have an iPhone you can use a service called Mail Drop. This will essentially create an iCloud link to the file that is valid for 30 days so that the other party can access the file.

8. Control your PC from your phone

If you are ever out of the house and notice that you have left an important file on your computer that you need at work, don’t get in the car and go home. There is a handy tool you can use to control your computer from where you are and send yourself any files you need. TeamViewer is a remote computer control app that will allow you to use your computer from your phone.

9. Customise your keyboard

Have you ever noticed that the autocorrect function of your phone is a bit out there and funky? Instead of constantly ending up with random words in your sentences like flamingo or umbrella, you can customise your own keyboard and it will learn your patterns of speech. Download a third party keyboard and use this and it will make your life much easier.

10. Conserve your power

Due to the high processing power and heavy use of mobile phones it is no surprise that we often end up draining the battery before lunch time. But there is a simple function on your phone that can reduce this risk. In your settings, there should be a power option and a low battery mode. Turn this on and it will prevent any unnecessary background processes happening while your phone is idle or in use.

11. Make it charge faster

To follow on from the point above, what happens when you need to charge your phone in a short space of time? Turn on airplane mode and it will shut down background processes and allow the phone to charge much quicker.

12. Find your friends

If you have family members or friends that you need to track for meeting up or getting home for dinner, Find my Friends is the ideal app to use. It allows you to see where people are at all times so if your other half is stuck in traffic you can slow down dinner until they get home!

13. FLASH….AHHHH

If you have a habit of ignoring the notifications and alerts that pop up on your screen you might often find yourself forgetting about important appointments or reminders. To ensure that you always notice when an alert comes on the screen you can set your phone to flash. Never miss another important alert again!

14. Hard reboot

This tip is one that is known to most of us, but it is an important one to remember if you want to get the most out of your phone. If your mobile phone freezes or it seems to have a serious issue, make sure to reboot the system. We’ve all heard the old adage of turning it off and on again, and honestly, this is often the solution for you. If there is an issue, perform a hard reboot and your phone should be good as new.

15. Get rid of memory clog

As we use our mobile phones throughout our daily lives it is understandable that sometimes our memory gets clogged up with photos, videos, and music and apps. However after a while RAM will fill up so much that it will slow down the performance of the phone. Be sure that you can prevent this happening by getting rid of RAM. Clear out apps you don’t use and put your photos onto a computer or harddrive.

16. Enjoy a good workout

Did you know that there are many free apps out there that will show you workouts you can do at home? Why pay for an expensive gym membership when you can use a free app and workout in your living room instead? There are tonnes of great options such as yoga, pilates, HIIT and more. Take a look and see which ones suit you.

17. Learn to cook

If you are useless in the kitchen and you always feel as if you burn water, use your phone to help you learn. Stand your phone up and get some YouTube tutorials on the go to teach you simple skills in the kitchen. There are many helpful YouTube channels for cooking, including Binging With Babish and SortedFood.

18. Find your way home

If you have an android phone you are in look, and you’ll be able to find your home wherever you are. Head to Google Maps and create a shortcut that will take you home from wherever. It means you will not have to type in your address every time you want to head home from somewhere unfamiliar.

19. Fall asleep easy

If you are the kind of person who needs some background music when they are trying to fall asleep you are not alone. But instead of keeping a TV and then waking up in the middle of the night to switch it off, you can use your phone to lull you to sleep with your own music. The stopwatch app in iPhone allows you to set a ‘stop playing’ timer that will stop all music playing after a certain period.

20. Taking weird angle photos

We all know the real struggle of getting the perfect selfie, and this is made 10 times harder when you are trying to feel around for the little touchscreen button to snap your shot. If you are taking a photo at a weird angle and your finger can’t reach this button, did you know you can use the volume buttons instead? It’s much easier to do and you’ll likely get a less shaky photo as a result.

There are so many things that our phones can do and they truly do change the way we live our lives. Take these little tips and tricks away with you to make the most of your pocket computer this year and impress your friends.

Use your ← → (arrow) keys to browse

Continue Reading

Trending