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Medicine: From The Study Of Gods To Healing Robots

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V0018149 An invocation to I-em-hetep, the Egyptian deity of medicine.
Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images
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An invocation to I-em-hetep, the Egyptian deity of medicine. Oil painting by Ernest Board.
By: Ernest BoardPublished: –
Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Throughout history, civilizations all over the world have sought to fight disease, postpone death and relieve suffering. After all, as being healthy is by far the best and only way to enjoy a longer life, it appears evident that doctors would have developed fascinating medical approaches and knowledge throughout time. The history of medicine, however, is a tale of mankind evolution, knowledge and, more often than not, a tale of beliefs. It is because today modern doctors believe that science has most answers — and will one day have all answers — that the role of the healer has changed from a holy figure to an experienced scientist. While there have been many eureka moments, the story of healing the body is not only a story of unsung medical heroes, but also a portrait of how human beings perceive their world.

The Gods made me sick

The earliest documented doctors that archaeology has revealed were Egyptian physicians 5,000 years ago. While there might have been doctors before that time in other countries, Egyptian papyri are for now the earliest evidence of medical knowledge. However, these writings attribute the responsibility of the health of the people to the pharaoh. In those times, healing methods were groups in sacred centres and consisted mainly of religious rites and ceremonies designed to ask the Gods for health. Another belief of the time was that diseases were the result of an angry deity. Consequently, the ceremonies needed to appeal to the Gods and offer a sacred apology for the offence. The belief that the divine could influence human health lasted for centuries, as even in the Middle Age, healing sacrifices were still encouraged in Pagan communities.

Studying the cure

Nowadays the approach to finding a cure has changed greatly. Scientists, and especially lab scientists, rely primarily on the observational study of patients in the retrospective of existing data as well as the investigation outside of clinical trials to find evidence of a cure’s success. This scientific process is relatively new in the world of medicine and dates back from the Industrial Revolution. In fact, people invented the steam engine before they understood how to diagnose and make more effective medications! But with the evolution of the observational field, more and more medical professions dive into the complex relations between the body and the mind, from a standard GP to a specialist neurologist.

Can robots heal us?

Finally, the evolution of medicine isn’t over yet. There is still a lot that doctors don’t understand, and a lot that they can’t treat. Consequently, new healing methods are discussed all over the world. Doctors have stopped waiting for a divine answer. Instead, they have been building nanobots, which will be able to navigate the body to repair internal damage locally. What sounds still like a sci-fi story is expected to happen by 2030. Will the human health be in the hands of robots? As surgeons already rely on robotic technology in the operating room, internal bots could be the next big heal!

In the end, the story of medicine is still to be continued. But it remains, for now, a story that highlights the resourcefulness of mankind and its desire to understand and manage the cause of all diseases and maybe, one day, defeat death too.

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Student @ Advanced Digital Sciences Center, Singapore. Travelled to 30+ countries, passion for basketball.

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Culture and Lifestyle

The Best Art Galleries You Mustn’t Miss This Year

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Art gallery woman

“El Sol” Chema Gil Ramírez, Calavera Gallery.

Hey art lovers! We have created for you a list with the best art galleries you mustn’t miss this year. From the greatest masters from long time ago, to contemporary installations around the world, where you can find photography, painting, sculpture and all kind of art.

The Best Art Galleries Of The Year

The Hole, in New York City

Kathy Grayson founded The Hole Gallery in 2010. A space of young and ambitious art located on Bowery Street in New York City, where artists in the eighties used to live and party. It usually hosts two exhibitions at once.

Calavera Gallery, in Italy

Leaders of international art events all around the world, Calavera Gallery owns a prestigious collection of sculptures, paintings, photographs, illustrations and multimedia art works. This art gallery has offices in Tokyo, Paris, Switzerland, Mexico and Austria. Here you’ll find modern and contemporary art.

Levy Gorvy, in New York City and London

Founded by Dominique Lévy, this art gallery located in London and NY city is known for showing contemporary minimal, conceptual, abstract You may enjoy art of artists such as Yves Klein, Frank Stella, Pierre Soulages, Günther Uecker and Dan Colen.

Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, in Paris, Pantin, Salzburg, and London

The Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac was founded in Austria in 1983. It is now an international art gallery who represents around 60 artists such as Robert Longo, Imran Qureshi, Alex Katz, Gilbert & George, and Cory Arcangel. It’s known for its Drawings Department in Paris and its ironworks factory located in Pantin.

Lehmann Maupin, in New York and Hong Kong

Founded by Rachel Lehmann and David Maupin, Lehmann Maupin art gallery was founded in SoHo in 1996. Artists such as Os Gemeos, Mr., Mickalene Thomas, Gilbert & George, or Alex Prager are represented in this contemporary space. This gallery is known for giving new artists the opportunity of showing their works of art for the first time.

Sean Kelly Gallery in New York

Sean Kelly founded this gallery focused on performance and installation art in New York City in 1991, after his career at the British Museum. His gallery is located in SoHo, and has exhibited Robert Mapplethorpe and Marina Abramović first works of art.

The Saatchi Gallery, in London

This worldwide gallery may be the number one for young artists in UK. Since its opening, it is known for representing debutants. Let yourself get amazed by recent contemporary art.

Sprueth Magers in Berlin, London, and Los Angeles

At the beginning, Monika Sprüth founded this gallery in Cologne due to the lack of female artists in the city. She opened her art gallery to support art made by women. Artists such as Barbara Kruger, Cindy Sherman, Ryan Trecartin and John Baldessari have been represented by Sprueth Magers.

Hans Mayer in Düsseldorf, Germany

This art gallery is specially known for its outdoor sculptures, which are surprisingly amazing. The exciting thing about this site is that it’s home of many types of art, such as dance, theater, music and even fashion shows. Check out its schedule!

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How the world of Harry Potter changed us forever

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Harry potter movie castle

When the first Harry Potter book hit the shelves of bookstores in 1997, JK Rowling could only dream of what would happen next. Over 20 years later and we have seen 6 more books, one play, 8 major motion pictures, merchandise, video games, visitor attraction, a dedicated website in Pottermore, and now a series of prequels revolving around the earlier life of the much loved Albus Dumbledore.

Harry Potter changed everything for both children and adults. It really bought reading, especially among teens, back to life for everyone and now translated into 80 languages it really is leaving a worldwide legacy.

Everyday new young people of discovering the world of Harry Potter

As children are getting older, parents are passing down their owner love of all things Harry Potter to their children, and the lessons given in those books are still more relevant than ever in this increasingly technological world. Friendship, courage, making mistakes and carrying on are so vital to be able to see. The more subtle adult themes around prejudice, politics and media are especially important.

The ability of JK Rowling to weave this wonderfully complex storyline around loveable yet flawed characters is fantastic, and to do all this in a way that resonates with children and young adults is quite a skill. Most Potter fans were not surprised at their great sense of loss when the books finally ended.

Immerse yourself in the world of Harry Potter

One of the great ways to really get into the world is through the Harry Potter videogame, where you can actually become the characters and fight your way through to take down Voldemort yourself.

Rumour has is that Warner Bros are planning a brand new RPG game very soon, although there is nothing official yet. However, there was the incident of a Youtube video leaked online of a new game, very quickly taken down by Warner Bros, which seems to suggest there is some truth in the rumour. It seems at this moment that you will be able to create characters and play in an open world and make potions and cast spells. What else you will be able to do is as yet unknown but it is certainly exciting.

There is a whole world of fantasy fiction out there

If videogames are not your thing and you are looking for the next great epic to read then there are plenty of books like Harry Potter.

Take for example the three book saga, The Magicians trilogy. This tells the story of a high school student Quentin, who discovers he is a magician and heads to a magical college in New York. It has also been made into a TV series if you prefer to watch instead of read.

It is certainly a bit more adult than the Harry Potter books but is definitely worth a read for older teens and grown ups.

Another series that will fill the hole left by Potter is the Bartimaeus trilogy, that mixes real historic events with magic and revolves around the character of Nathaniel, an 11 year old apprentice of magic. The fun thing about alternative history is that it had endless possibilities and outcomes.

Of course, one of the other all time great trilogies is the His Dark Materials books. This one is a fantastic story, filled with complicated relationships, great characters and a huge number of emotional ups and downs. It touches on concepts of philosophy and religion and some complex concepts that are somehow made completely understandable. This book will have you in tears at some point, and laughing at others.

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Easy, Safe and Without Ads: the Best Websites to Watch Movies Online in 2019

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online movie popcorn

Movies can reach our hearts and make us feel unforgettable moments, catching us from the beginning to an end, and that is why we all like to watch a good one once in a while. However, we do not always feel like going to the movie theater. A few decades ago, films were in black and white and had to be seen in the cinema or on a television, but now it is possible to enjoy the best audiovisual content anytime and anywhere You just have to connect to a computer and watch one of the newly released films at no cost. At one time or another, all of us have looked for websites to watch movies online in order to enjoy an afternoon of home cinema. The problem with most of these free online movie viewing sites is that they are full of invasive advertising, spam, viruses and in many cases are a scam.

In this article we have browsed the Internet looking for the best websites to watch movies for free so you can enjoy watching movies and TV series without worrying about anything else –like annoying ad sor malware. Sometimes it can be a problem to find good websites to enjoy a good film, because some websites are full of invasive advertising, but luckily there are some sites that can be useful and allow us to have a great time watching movies from home.

After all the research we have been able to verify that websites without invasive advertising or Spam are few. Although if you check the different sites that we recommend in this summary of the best pages to watch free movies, you will find some good options. The following websites offer free audiovisual material. However, since we don’t agree with any type of infringement of intellectual property laws that protect the copyrights of cinematographic works, it is under your responsibility that these contents do not contravene any law or regulation in the country you are streaming from.

123movies

123Movies is a video streaming site that allows users to watch movies online for free. 123Movies provide visitors with a large catalog of titles, including new releases. Due to the variety of content, 123Movies has become one of the most popular streaming sites. You can find most movies and television shows on 123Movies. Besides new blockbuster films that have just recently appeared in theaters, you can find titles from other popular streaming sites, such as Netflix, Amazon, and Hulu.

You do not need to login or create an account. You simply click on the title that you want to watch and begin streaming on your computer or internet-connected device. You can watch movies from the browser on your computer, tablet, or smartphone. In most of the Western world, displaying content that was not obtained through the proper licenses is illegal. However, 123Movies operates in other parts of the world. They are often based out of countries that do not have strict anti-piracy or copyright laws. Plus, instead of hosting the content on their website, they link to external servers and the content is streamed from a secure cyber locker or another online source.

YouTube

Youtube is the only one source through which people can enjoy and look at any kind of movies or videos. Being accessible to people throughout the globe it also facilitates an individual with various options and desires according to their needs. If you have an Internet connection or even can use mobile data to open a site called Youtube and watch every movie you want without any problems. Google’s YouTube.com provides hundreds of good free movies, and it is also available in various languages. If you are interested, you can also rent or buy movies there.

YesMovies

When talking about free movie streaming one of the most visited site by many is Yes!Movies. This site has a good reputation when it comes to providing free access to movies from different countries. The site has an extensive list of TVSeries and movies at a fast loading speed. Also the video quality of the video can be adjusted to match the device that you are currently using.

IMDb

IMDb is not just a popular movie database but also an excellent resource for watching documentaries and films. They have a separate section for listing various films and documentaries. Often avoided but yet this site is featured in almost every list of streaming sites.

WatchMovieStream

WatchMovieStream offers thousands of free movies available for online streaming. The website works perfectly on all devices, so those of you who enjoy watching movies online on their mobile phone will be pleased. Watch Movie Stream is very easy to use, and movies are listed in 22 different genres.


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