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Pax Europaea : The EU as Pacifier in the Frozen Conflict Areas – The World Reporter
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Pax Europaea : The EU as Pacifier in the Frozen Conflict Areas

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In this short paper I will try to analyse the unique opportunity the EU has in pacifying one of the still unresolved conflicting neighbouring areas that pose a threat to the stability and high level of cooperation that European countries have achieved in the last half of century. I am referring to the frozen conflicts around the Black Sea . More specifically, the list could be conceived as follows:

In this context, the main centres of gravity are to my mind Russia, the US/NATO and more interestingly the EU.

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Source: Matt Shalvatis@Flickr

Before going further into details, I would present the theoretical framework which will guide us in understanding one of the perspectives of the issues on the ground, namely the defensive realist approach. An analysis based on this perspective follows a pragmatic, non-normative line of thinking which tries to stay away from considerations like human rights, self-determination, ideology or other liberal-democratic political principles. It has nothing to do with the lack of humanity. The justification has to do with a stronger focus on the national interest of the states under consideration.

According to proponents of this view, the world that surrounds us is similar to a system made up of units which constantly interact with one another. The main units are the nation-states that operate under anarchy, meaning that there is no hegemon and no hierarchy of states. In this sense for example, the UN is totally dependent on the interests of the member countries and especially on the veto of the Permanent Five.

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Source: elycefeliz@Flickr

There is no legal separation of power or institutional control and no real accountability for states who are autonomous and free to pursue the domestic policies they are happy with. There are only international treaties that have strength for as long as signatory countries agree to it.

Furthermore, what motivates state behaviour is the perception of own or foreign power and the threat that comes with that power. This logic results in a balance of threat among nation states. According to this concept, states will align with other states to counterbalance another stronger and threatening state or group of states. The purpose of this balancing is not for offensive or expansionist reasons but for defensive ones.

I would take a different route from traditional neorealism by arguing that leaders or political figures do matter in international relations. However, states are reluctant to trust one another even if for the moment good relations might be in place. One leader can never know with whom he will have to deal in the future or what orientation the foreign policy of another state will take in longer term.

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Source: David Stanley@Flickr

Finally, despite the common criticism that realism is an amoral or even immoral way of seeing things, I would argue that there is such a thing as morality of realism. Values like stability, prudence, pragmatism, understanding of political and social complexities, even respect for human life guide proponents of this perspective when thinking about possible solutions to common problems.

Moreover, realists are able to understand the level of regional development that the postmodern EU shows. Nevertheless, it is clear for them that in other parts of the world modernity rules under the shape of the nation states who selfishly, geopolitically and geostrategically pursue their own interests. Trust-building and paradigmatic shifts are slow processes that ought not to be forced or put aside for more interventionist measures.

Having said this, we can focus more on the EU as a potential pacifier in the above mentioned areas of the world. This part of the world is characterized by uncertainty, total mistrust, strategic thinking as foreign policy and never-ending tension. Boundaries among states are hard but at the same time very much disputed among antagonistic neighbours. History and the bloody memory is fresh in the mind of both the people and political leaders. Fear of the re-emergence of another Russian Empire or Soviet Union brings countries like Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova to pursue NATO and US led coalitions, which in turn fuels the Russian ego and builds up its security apparatus due to a Cold War view of American imperialism.

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Source: NATO-Russia Council@Flickr

We could sum up that the region is characterized by a vicious cycle of threat perception. We could make an analogy to Europe’s modern history. Luckily for us, it ended up well in a common structure that has been able to integrate the national interest of the member states with the need for cooperation and collaboration. Peace is here to stay, at least while economies are stable and public opinion remains strong. The EU is the best example of how to overcome the dirty nature of politics.

In its relation to the outside world, the EU can rely on its soft power, the power of attraction. Furthermore, I would argue that the EU is more capable than other international actors of pragmatism, toleration of diversity and non-ideological policies. By all this, I am referring to the ability of practically conducting relations without setting strong political or economic standards.

The aim of the member states is still to satisfy the national interest regardless of their ideological aspirations. They might have adopted the liberal-democratic system and might pursue the extension of this system to interlocutors but the EU is not imposing a particular way of organizing societies, economies or the state. Rather, the EU is encouraging a change from within. At least unofficially. Officially the situation is different and it has to be different since the values that the EU puts on paper are basic for EU’s own existence.

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Source: looking4poetry@Flickr

Going back to our disputed territories, the EU could act as a strong mediator and hub for all the conflicting parties. The EU could show understanding because the member states can put themselves in the shoes of each of the forces. Europe had experienced separatism, militarism, realpolitik, spheres of influence and strategic alliance making and foreign policy. Conflict mediation, resolution, peace-building and even reconciliation are strong assets in EU’s pocket.

Not only, but the EU has also strong economic and energy interests in this area of the world. Instability there will lead to the possibility of instability here. European companies and Russian ones are doing business on a daily basis. The leverage is mutual and this leverage should not be used as an instrument to tie up ‘the enemy’ but to build trust through mutual advantageous cooperation. Energy security is one of the fundamental parts of EU’s security strategy. Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan are both elementary sources of gas and oil and transit routes. The EU should stay away from demonizing the owners of those resources and from trying to get a grip on them because this is perceived by the later as a direct attack on their national interest. Countries rich in resources put the revenue that comes from it on top of the list in their security strategies and see it as a fountain of national prestige.

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Source: Malcolm Manners@Flickr

In order to achieve all the above the EU should follow its own path in becoming a global player. By this I mean keeping away from US instructions or way of doing things. As we all know, the US is suffering today from a very bad image due to its policing of the world. Unilateralism and interventionism should not be part of EU’s foreign policy vocabulary. Instead it should seek compromise, long-term trust-building and should push forward the idea of the EU as not taking sides unless it is the side of the civilian population.

Lastly, the EU should not be blinded by the aspirations of creating a strong economic and commercial bloc if this means threatening the same aspirations of other countries. This is dangerous and it can lead to defensive measures, like for example Russia’s pivot to Central and South East Asia. Partners should not be pushed away but attracted for the well-being of all parties.

To conclude, the area of frozen conflicts is still characterized by modernity and EU member states have managed to surpass the very same situation by own realization of the fact that mistrust leads nowhere. The EU has all the experience and instruments to show and persuade, not force other parts of the world to follow the same path. Preaching should be replaced by concrete proof of which system works best and by signs of trustworthy-ness to more sceptical neighbours.


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Employee Training and Development Becomes One of the Most Disruptive Megatrends That Is Shaping the Future of Work

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Employee training

There is no question about the effectiveness of employee training and development. It’s incredibly important to help your staff advance their skills and knowledge to help grow a business, but the impact of employee learning has often been understated and even neglected. However, companies are now suggesting that employee training and development is one of the biggest megatrends that have completely transformed the future of work. It has overhauled how businesses should be developing and engaging with employees, and it’s leading to an incredibly diverse and talented workforce that is capable of wonderful new things.

Part of the problem of employee training and development is that it’s difficult to measure its impact on the workplace. Employee performance often isn’t a quantitative measurement that is easy to read and link to their output. This is one of the reasons why the effectiveness of employee training and development has been questioned by management experts.

Thankfully, new strategies have been developed to help measure workplace learning and its impact on companies. Below, we’ve included a helpful infographic that covers some of the most important measurements, such as return on investment and how it is calculated in the context of employee learning and development. It should put the effectiveness of employee training into perspective and will help you better understand when training is needed and how development actually improves your business and its productivity.


Infographic by: Ezra Coaching
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Top 10 Simple Health Changes To Boost Your Well-Being

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It does not matter how old you are, where you live, or what your occupation is, your health should always be a top priority. However, most of us are a little bit guilty of letting our well-being slide from time to time. With that being said, read on to discover some of the simple ways you can give your health a boost today.

  1. Get rid of at least one item in your life that contains toxic chemicals – You may be shocked by just how many items in your life contain toxic chemicals. This includes everything from air fresheners to bed sheets. Get rid of one of these items and replace it with something natural instead. This is something you should make a habit to do every few months or so. You will be surprised by just how much of a difference this can make. 
  2. Deep breathe for at least five minutes – Throughout the day, you should make sure you take the opportunity to deep breathe for at least five minutes. Why? Well, there have been numerous studies that have shown that deep breathing can help to lower stress hormone levels. This means that you will feel better, get an improved night’s sleep, and you will have less anxiety too.
  3. Drink more water – You probably expected this to be on the list, but the importance of drinking more water should never be ignored. Your body needs water for almost every function. If you are dehydrated, this could be the cause of headaches, pains, aches, and a number of other symptoms.
  4. Have one veggie night per week – A lot of people eat far too much meat, red meat especially. So, why not have a veggie night once a week? Not only is this good for your health, but it will be good for your bank balance too. There are so many great recipes online that can give you ideas regarding tasty and creative dishes that do not incorporate any sort of meat or fish. Once you start off with one night per week, you may then decide that you want to up it to two nights, and so on. However, it always helps to start off small so that it is easier and more manageable, and you can then get used to it.
  5. Sign up for an online pharmacy – Nowadays, you can easily order your prescriptions and medications over the Internet via an online pharmacy. This can help you to boost your health because it ensures you never experience delays with your medication. If you are someone who often doesn’t take their recommended course of tablets because you cannot get to the doctors in time for a repeat prescription, then this is definitely a good suggestion for you. Your medication will be delivered to your door with a click of a button.
  6. Make a dedicated effort to lower your stress levels – There is no denying that we live in a very stress-filled world at the moment! The world we live in is one that has heaps of pressure, and it can be difficult to stay on top of everything and keep those stress levels low. However, it is vital that you find a way to do so. After all, if you don’t adrenal fatigue and health can start to take a tumble, which is the last thing you want. For those who are unaware, adrenal fatigue relates to a group of different symptoms that impact people who are under a lot of physical, emotional, or mental stress. From being a single parent to having a stressful job, there are a lot of different reasons why you may be struggling. Therefore, we recommend that you look for different ways to reduce those stress levels so that you can enjoy a more calming and peaceful life. Whether it is doing some breathing techniques or taking more regular breaks so you can have moments for yourself, there are a lot of different ways that you can make sure you are keeping your stress levels to a minimum. The importance of this should not be overlooked, as stress can impact our mental and physical health in so many different ways. 
  7. Do something nice for someone every day – You will be surprised by how good this makes you feel, and by how much this has a positive impact on your health. It’s all about mental well being. When you do something nice for another person, you are benefitting their health, as well as your own. First and foremost, there is no denying that it feels good to hear some nice words for someone or to get a helping hand when you need it. You feel recognised and appreciated, and this is something we all need. At the same time, doing something nice for someone else and seeing their reaction can make you feel amazing too. After all, doing something good for someone is a gift for yourself at the same time. You will find that the deed continues throughout the day, making you feel great and happy within yourself. 
  8. Incorporate some movement into your commute – If you do not have an active job, this is particularly important. Sitting at a computer all day can be bad for your health. One way to combat this is by incorporating some movement into your commute. If you can walk or bike to work, you should give this a go. If not, start parking your car further away from your place of work so that you have to walk there and back. You should also start using the stairs instead of the elevator whenever you can.
  9. Start meal planning – You will find it much easier to eat healthily if you plan your meals. At the start of every week, make a menu of what you are going to cook for dinner every evening, as well as what you are going to make for your lunches every day. Not only will this help you to eat better, but you will save money too. Make sure you incorporate some healthy snacks into your food prep for work. This will stop you from going to the vending machine whenever you are bored or your energy is zapped. The great thing about the times we live in at the moment is that you can easily get recipes and meal prep inspiration online. So, if you are struggling, simply do a little bit of digging online and we are sure that you will find a lot of different options when it comes to meal ideas and clever food prep suggestions for the week ahead. Not only is this going to help you to be more organized, but you will find that it actually saves you quite a bit of money in the process. After all, when we do not have a food plan for the week ahead, we tend to spend a lot of money on items we do not need. Food can end up going in the bin because we do not use it. This ends up in an awful lot of waste, and we should all be looking to reduce this, so meal prep is great in many ways.
  10. Keep a journal – Last but not least, keeping a journal is good for a person’s mental health. You should write down your thoughts. It doesn’t need to be a long entry; you can simply jot down a few bullet points every evening. This will help you to articulate your thoughts so that they do not wear you down. After all, it can be very difficult to sleep if you have lots on your mind. A lot of experts advise this approach for people who suffer from insomnia. One of the main reasons why a lot of people struggle to get the hours of sleep they need is because they cannot shut off when they go to sleep; their minds are still going at a million miles per hour. They are thinking about what they need to do the following day and any worries or concerns that they may have. Because of this, it very much makes sense to keep a journal so you can offload some of these thoughts and worries and you can have a much more restful night of sleep. Once you get into the habit of doing this, you will see that it actually does make a significant difference when it comes to drifting off and enjoying a good night of rest. 

So there you have it: some of the best ways to give your health a boost. The suggestions that have been provided are really simple and easy, so there is no excuse not to give yourself a bit of TLC. we are sure that you will start to notice a difference as time goes on. However, as is the case with anything, it requires patience and persistence. You cannot expect to turn your health around in one night.

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Why Buy A Business, Rather Than Start One

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There are good and bad sides to buying a business and starting your own business from scratch. For lots of people, the positives of buying an established business outweigh the positives of starting a business. Here are the reasons why buying an existing business could be the right choice.

Easier To Secure Finance

All businesses will need finance. Unless you can fund your business yourself, you’ll need to secure financing from investors. Most lenders will be more willing to lend money to an established business that they can already see is doing well, rather than risk an unknown factor. 

Income From Day One

One of the downsides of starting a business is that most start-ups will go through an early stage where they don’t make much, if any, money. For some entrepreneurs, this stage can last for several years. 

During this stage, you will need to pay out for things like your premises, as well as equipment, installation of equipment, stock, materials, fixtures and fittings, legal and professional fees, a license, uniforms, and more. 

If you don’t have finance in place or another form of income, this stage can be very tough for a new business owner. If you buy a business, you can start earning from day one, and avoid this tricky period where you might be out of pocket.  

Established Brand

When you buy a business that already exists, you are also buying into a brand that is already known, recognizable, and has a track record. You get the business complete with all the trademarks, copyrights, and websites associated with it, as well as the business locations

This means that your business will already have customers, lenders, suppliers, and other contacts that are confident in the business already. 

Instant Customer Access

An existing business also has customers already, which can help you succeed straight away. You can use a range of strategies and marketing to build on the existing customer base, but won’t have to struggle to build a customer base from scratch. 

Established Network Of Contacts

When you start a business from scratch, a lot of your time and energy has to be put into building up a network of contacts. 

All businesses need to have supplier and marketing contacts, so buying an existing business that already has those contacts in place allows you to hit the ground running.

Like money lenders, suppliers and marketing companies are more likely to offer you more favourable terms if your business has been around for a while and they know it.  

Focus On Growing The Business

When an entrepreneur starts a new business, they will have to put a lot of their energy into getting their business off the ground. This takes a lot of time and can be very tiring. 

On the other hand, when you take over a business that is already established, you’ll be freer to focus on the areas of the business that most need your attention, aiding the growth of the business as a whole. 

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