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Electrospinning: the most advanced method of drug delivery

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electrospinning drug delivery

At the pharmaceutical level, the need to improve and refine the methods of drug delivery in the body is an area of great importance. Unlike people commonly assume, the effectiveness of a drug is not based solely on its composition, but on its method of application. 

This fact becomes clear if we look at the different presentations that a drug can have regarding ways of being supplied. Likewise, in the creation and composition of the drug for therapeutic use, the best and most efficient ways of providing the treatment are evaluated. 

The need for a drug delivery system that controls and directs the active pharmaceutical ingredients is becoming increasingly evident to achieve a decrease in the adverse side effects of treatment. An example, the need for control in the release of drug’s API into the body is what happened to cancer patients.

The treatment against cancer is hugely abrasive to the patient’s body, and therefore, its administration must be strongly dosed to decrease the intensity of the adverse side effects in the person. However, this also reduces the effectiveness of the treatment.

Delivery directed specifically to the area of the tumour, increasing the effectiveness of the drug and reducing adverse effects. Different methods of encapsulation have been tested but have marked limitations that allow only reduced variables to be controlled, such as the speed of drug delivery to the body once ingested.

The technology of electrospinning drug delivery breaks with the limitations of the previous methods of encapsulation achieving a controlled, directed and even programmed administration in the body. These benefits are due to the variety of materials that can be processed by electrospinning and the structural variations of the capsules, creating a significant variety for drug delivery in the body. 

What is electrospinning

Electrospinning is a fibre manufacturing technique. It works with electromagnetic principles by subjecting substances to high voltages to generate an electrostatic charge in the material that ends up resulting in the formation of the nanometer fibre as a product of electrostatic repulsion and surface tension of the solution.

Electrospinning has several uses because of its property of being able to produce a great variety of fibres with significant differences from each other without changing the method. Although it was initially used for the manufacture of textiles has expanded to other areas such as the manufacture of batteries. Even combine the fibres with building elements such as concrete because of its high strength due to mechanical stress that is subjected to the material in its manufacture.

However, it is in the area of nanomaterial production where its maximum utility is highlighted since nanomaterials present particular interactions depending on the material, and it is at such scale where cellular processes occur. This reason is why medicine, more specifically pharmacology, benefits greatly from such technology. 

In pharmacology, two types of drugs are sold (differentiated by application according to the fibre), dressings and tissues, both of which can be manufactured with the production of fibres derived from electrospinning. 

Differences between electrospinning and other methods for drug delivery

Notable drug encapsulation methods include spray-drying, freeze-drying and emulsification, which are easily recognizable on sight since most consumer drugs are distributed in such presentations. Each one has his own characteristics that make it more suitable for one type of drug than another, and each one has its limitations.

These methods are based on the preservation and dosage of the drug. Such as freeze-drying, which is the procedure of preservation by cryodrying, or emulsification, which consists of mixing immiscible liquids. While such forms of encapsulation work efficiently to preserve the drug and deliver it to the body, their reach goes there. 

Electrospinning systems for drugs delivery work in two ways, by mixing the bioactive compound, i.e. the drug with the polymer solution before applying electrospinning or after the creation of the fibre by coaxial processing. This method allows the efficient supply of the drug’s API as it benefits from the surface-volume area due to the dependence on the surface area where the application of nanofibers is favoured. 

The drug release profiles are highly adaptable to various applications by varying the solution of the polymer with which the nanofiber is created and controlling its area and volume. This process will allow the distribution of drugs that are released in response to chemical stimuli even hours after they have been ingested, that target specific areas if created with magnetic components, and even facilitate their production on a large scale since the other methods find it difficult to produce them massively.Innovation in fibre production in the pharmacological area will create more significant and more efficient scope for the medication of many diseases, improving the treatment of the patient and increasing its effectiveness. Electrospinning technology admits a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers for processing, in turn, lowers production costs, allowing for greater distribution of medicines to various sectors of the population.

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Student @ Advanced Digital Sciences Center, Singapore. Travelled to 30+ countries, passion for basketball.

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Chronic Pain: How To Regain Control Over Your Life Naturally

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Chronic pain is estimated to affect over 50 million Americans and is becoming an even more popular condition. Due to our lifestyles, posture, exercise level, and diet, an increasing number of people have started to suffer from chronic pain. In some cases, pain can be minimal and only represent a minor inconvenience. However, in some other cases, chronic pain can take over your life and be so overwhelming that it might prevent you from enjoying even the easiest daily tasks. Depending on the cause behind it, chronic pain can develop from mild to severe. Therefore, while there is no definitive cure, chronic pain needs to be addressed. Here are five non-invasive ways to find chronic pain relief naturally. 

Understand the Underlying Causes

Firstly, it is crucial to understand what are the causes behind your chronic pain. You might have been the victim of an accident, or you might have reported injuries that haven’t healed. Alternatively, an inactive lifestyle and bad posture can also lead to lower back, sciatica, and leg pain. 

In some cases, some chronic diseases such as cancer and arthritis might be the cause behind the pain. Before trying to find a solution for your pain, it is crucial to understand what is the underlying cause. This will help you avoid unnecessary painkillers and move towards a longer-lasting solution.  

Use Meditation and Breathing Techniques

One of the main factors that can worsen your chronic pain is stress. Indeed, stress causes damage to cells and leads to increased free radicals. In turn, these can worsen inflammation and prevent your body from healing. 

Breathing techniques and meditation are mindfulness practices that allow you to focus on your breath, repeat a mantra, or focus your attention inward. This can allow you to avoid additional stress and reduce inflammation.

Aim To Move Your Body Regularly

Regular exercise is essential to allow your body to release endorphins – the happiness hormone! These compounds are the ones responsible for the famous “runner’s high” and act as mood regulators. In turn, this can reduce stress levels and allow you to feel more balanced. Exercise is also essential to help you get rid of any extra weight you might be carrying. By doing so, you can lighten up your body, which takes pressure away from your muscles, joints, and bones. And of course, it can help you reduce the risk of conditions such as heart disease. 

Consider a Plant-Based Lifestyle

Studies have proven that whole grain, plant-based lifestyle can reduce fatigue and chronic pain. Indeed, fruits and vegetables are famously filled with the antioxidants your body needs to reduce inflammation and the damaging effects of free radicals. Speaking to your nutritionist allows you to get started in the right way. 

Try Medical Marijuana

Medical marijuana has been seen to help with certain kinds of chronic pain. If you are affected by severe chronic pain which is impacting your life, or you have an underlying condition such as arthritis or cancer, you might be able to obtain a medical marijuana card. You can learn all about Harvest House of Cannabis and how to apply for a medical card here. 

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Unconventional Ways to Boost Your Health

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With health tips and diets around every corner, it can be hard to know what the best course is going to be for your body. Between fad diets and finding the best workout gear, it can be overwhelming. Finding the specific rhythm to support what your body needs is going to be a lifelong journey, but there are things that you can do to get off to a good start.

Establish a Baseline

In order to know what specific health goals you need to have, you first need to establish a baseline. It is important to start with the basics and make sure that you are making generally healthy choices before you can start getting more specific.

Even though each person is different and will require different health goals, there are some things that are in common across all bodies. You need to be getting enough sleep. Not getting enough sleep can mess with your health in surprising ways. You also need to be drinking enough water each day. Most people are not drinking enough water. Being dehydrated can cause you to overeat and to be fatigued during the day. You may be surprised to see how just changing your sleep and water intake patterns can give you an extra boost.

You should also make healthy eating choices and try to get some exercise. If you are just starting on your wellness journey, then you should take small steps. If you try to take on too much at once, you will likely not be able to sustain the change.

You can start by adding more vegetables to your meals instead of trying to change what you eat. Even if you continue to eat like normal, but add in more vegetables, you will eventually be able to change your diet more drastically. You can also try switching to only drinking water instead of any other kind of beverage with your meals. This will also help with your water intake.

For exercise, you don’t have to go running, even though that is probably what pops into your head first. You can start by just doing stretches before bed or going for a walk during your lunch break. Start where you are and then build on that.

Talk to Your Doctor

You should make sure that you go to your regular checkups with your doctor. If you have concerns about specific health issues, then discuss them with your doctor. If you are looking for advice in general, you can ask what their biggest concerns are and where your focus should be for improvements. They have insights into your health that can help you on your path to wellness.

Environment Changes

There may be changes you need to make to your environment in order to be functioning at one hundred percent. You should have your home tested for toxins and hazardous gases to make sure that you are not breathing in anything that may be harmful to you. You may also want to be asking questions like, What is the Safe Distance From Wifi Router? Or, does my electrical wiring need to be updated. Making these changes can improve your health if there is something happening that shouldn’t be happening. You may be surprised to find out how your health can change when these silent issues get resolved.

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How To Stay Positive During the Extended Lockdown

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The most recent months have been overwhelming for countless individuals, with millions worldwide dealing with stress, grief, job losses, financial challenges, and the need to isolate all due to the coronavirus pandemic. As in the UK and US, there’s a potential lockdown in several countries due to the recent surge in covid-19 cases. This may heighten your anxiety levels surrounding the pandemic. How do you cope? With limited access to your loved ones and outdoor places, you should consider these five ways to help you stay positive during the lockdown. 

1. Get active 

While experts have stressed the need for physical activity, getting out to exercise is impossible due to the pandemic. However, physical activity is essential to boosting your mood and keeping you positive all through the day. Engaging in regular exercising triggers endorphin release into your bloodstream for pain relief and good well-being. Further studies have proposed increasing electrical activity in emotional areas of the brain, especially the prefrontal cortex hippocampus. Exercises like jumping sticks, planking, happy frogs, and even an excellent early morning stretch is useful for maintaining a positive mood all day long. 

2. Remind yourself of life’s positives

Several pieces of research have proposed the importance of daily gratitude to individual well-being. From greater satisfaction to better sleep, happiness, and improved mood, the benefits of being grateful every day is immeasurable. But how can you be positive with all the chaos around? You can begin to integrate this mindset by writing down three things you appreciate each day, towards the day’s end. It could be a good coffee, hot bath, or a supportive spouse. No matter how little they might seem, write them down, and over time you’ll realize the enormous number of things you can be grateful for. 

3. Find an escape from alcohol

During lockdowns, it’s easy to resort to drinking alcohol to keep positive due to its antidepressant effects. However, it can only make you feel better for just a short while. Meanwhile, the long-term impact of alcohol consumption doesn’t present a good look. Why not cut back on the alcohol and go for something more non-alcoholic? If you’re looking for another alternative, why not check Haylees World for a much safer escape? Your liver and lungs will be grateful. 

4. Keep in touch with loved ones

Lockdown or social distancing doesn’t mean cutting ties from your friends and loved ones. If there’s one thing we’ve learned over the pandemic so far, it’s the crucial role our families, friends, and loved ones play in our daily lives. While it may be physically impossible to reach out, there are many tools and apps, for example, Zoom, that you can utilize to remain in touch with everyone else. Reaching out to loved ones can help minimize the mental and psychological impact of the pandemic. It’s indispensable to stay connected to build your support bubble. Create a regular schedule of friends, family, or colleagues you can engage via virtual apps to stay connected. 

Nations worldwide are recording a spike in COVID-19 cases despite managing to slow down the infection rates earlier. With many countries recording massive COVID cases every day, state and health authorities will likely push for stricter measures and perhaps a new lockdown. However, these should guide you during the period.

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