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Analyzing Horse Meat Scandal, Its Effects, and How it Progressed.

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Tesco, horse meat scandal
Tesco, Photo taken by Clive Darra
Horse meat Scandal is the adulteration of non vegetarian food which is advertised as containing beef with horse meat. The ongoing food adulteration also includes undeclared uses of other meats like pork. The issue was first exposed on 15 January 2013, when it was found in the reports that horse DNA had been discovered in frozen beefburgers sold in several Irish and British supermarkets. Samples were sent to the FSA recognized labs via courier companies and other methods for testing. Gradually reports of discovery of traces of undeclared horse meat also started coming from France, Sweden, Spain and Netherlands. 
Horse meat is not harmful as such, and in many countries like China, Russia, neighbouring France, Italy and Kazakhstan it is consumed commonly, however in many countries like Britain and Ireland eating horse meat is considered a taboo. In the customs of Islam and Judaism; eating horse meat is considered sinful. At this, selling horse meat or pork declared as beef is a big issue like playing with the sentiments of the public. It is just like British East India Company purposely greasing cartridges of rifles with cow and pork fat to humiliate their own Hindu and Muslim soldiers, who consider eating beef and pork sinful. 
Increase in population, rise in prices and tight demand and supply is causing the meat factories think of other alternatives to make bigger profits, however without thinking of the consequences. Big brands like TESCO, Aldi and Findus (Sweden) had to withdraw their products from the shelf which had meat from these factories, causing wastage of food.

Is Eating Horse Meat Harmful?

Horse meat eating is common in countries like France, China, Italy, Russia and Kazakhstan and is considered healthy and doesn’t pose any risk. Britain’s FSA says that eating horse meat is not unhealthy, given it has no veterinary drug phenylbutazone or bute. Bute is used as an analgesic for horses which is another name for painkillers. Bute was banned from use in humans after it was found that its users suffered side effects that caused serious blood disorder, although its possibility of ill affecting a human being was only 1 in 30,000.
However, FSA said that the levels of bute found in previous testing of contaminated food was so low that it has to be multiplied by thousand to bring to the same recommended value for humans as it was allowed earlier. Chief medical officer Professor Dame Sally Davies, England’s senior most doctor, said the level of contamination, 1.9mg/kg, posed “very little risk to human health”. She further added that around 500-600 burgers containing 100% horse meat would need to be eaten to receive the daily human therapeutic dose.
Harmful effects of bute when taken in low quantity for a long time has not been studied yet, but anything that is harmful is ultimately harmful whether in small quantities or big.

How Did Horse Meat Manage to Enter Food Chain Replacing Beef?

AFP reported that Comigel (Private French Food Processing Company) had blamed French meat-processing company Spanghero, which further put blame on Doly Com, a Romanian-based slaughterhouse from where the meat was bought via traders in Cyprus and the Netherlands. However, an inquiry undertaken by the French government has cleared that “the meat had left Romania clearly and correctly labelled as horse. It was afterwards that it was relabelled as beef.”
Romanian prime minister, Victor Ponta and minister of Agriculture Daniel Constantin came forward to put Romania’s point in front. prime minister said, “the two Romanian slaughterhouses initially suspected to have links to the horse meat scandal never had direct contact with Comigel and had not done anything illegal.” Minister of Agriculture said, “there was no evidence of false horse meat labeling occurred in Romania.”

So How Does the Whole Supply Chain From Romania to France Work?

Doly Com (Romania) supplies the horse meat under a contract to Cyprus-based meat trader Draap Trading Ltd, which operates in the Netherlands. Draap delivers the horse meat to a cold storage company in Breda (Netherlands), and then sells the frozen meat to meat processing company Spanghero (France) , who has declared that meat arrived at their Castelnaudary plant labelled as “Beef – originating in EU”. After further processing, Spanghero sends it to Comigel, where the end products for sale were made. At the moment, according to French media reports, Spanghero falsified documents regarding the meat.
It is still not clear that who is the real culprit of this scandal, a detailed investigation is required to reach the roots of this case. Then only the whole idea will come into the picture, whether it was done to make profits, or if it was an error.
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Sanskar Shrivastava is the founder of international students' journal, The World Reporter. Passionate about dynamic occurrence in geopolitics, Sanskar has been studying and analyzing geopolitcal events from early life. At present, Sanskar is a student at the Russian Centre of Science and Culture and will be moving to Duke University.

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Things that you need to consider before having a lumbar disk replacement surgery

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lumbar disk spinal chord

In the world are many people who have difficult or problem with their spine. For that reason, is very common to see people having a lumbar disk replacement surgery recovery, after having had an intervention in the operating room to improve their health conditions. This kind of surgery usually doesn’t represent a risk for patients, but sometimes is necessary to know aspects that need to be considered before having this surgery.

A surgery is needed?

Spine problems can generate pain and make people have an unhealthy posture. This makes necessary to solve any problem associated with it to have a great life condition and to avoid any risk associated with spine diseases. Unfortunately there are many people who, for one reason or another, need an intervention in the operating room, due to the wear on their spine

Is a solution to many spine problems that could be generating difficulties or pain to patients. Recovery from lumbar disc replacement surgery requires that the patient receive rehabilitation for a few months for optimal results. This surgery has a fast recovery and doesn’t represent any risk of having it. It is a way to ensure the recovery of the spine; even about 80% of people can return to sports.Therefore, it’s normal that professionals recommend it as the first way to cure any disease related to the spine.

Despite all this, there are some indications or information that people need to know before having a lumbar disk replacement surgery. This will make the patient be more confident about this surgery and will make them to pass all this process with no difficulty. 

Here you will find full information about some things that need to be present before having this type of surgery. This will be essential to have the best process and have a fast surgery recovery.

What kind of things are necessary to consider before having a lumbar disk replacement surgery?

The degeneration of the parts of the spine can cause many health problems that, in the long run, they can bring serious health diseases. Therefore, having a lumbar disk replacement will be beneficial to patients. Despite this, is recommended to consider some aspects before decide or not to have this type of surgery.

Some main aspects that you need to think about before having this type of surgeries, are:

  • Find the best center: it’s necessary to consider many spine centers that can do this surgery with no problem. Also, is recommended to compare all options to determine which will be the best for your needs. This will help you in the surgery recovery and to avoid any possible risk.
  • Collect any information about the surgery: it’s indispensable to collect all the information about this surgery. For example, any risk, costs, recovery plan and the knowing about if this replacement will fix any health problem or disease.
  • Determine the quality of the artificial lumbar disc: it’s necessary to know the quality of the object that will be used on the surgery. This will understand any possible risk using this artificial product and will let you know if is the best option at this moment.
  • Ask for not intrusive solutions: if you have any problem with the lumbar disk or the spine, it’s recommended to have a not intrusive treatment, instead of having a surgery or disk replacement. Therefore, try to only have surgery at the last option. 
  • Find a plan of recovery and prevention: have a lumbar disk replacement has its problems and risk. Therefore, always it’s recommended to follow some recommendations and plans to keep your spine healthy. All this can be determined by a professional in this area, which will give you the correct information and indications about the after surgery treatment. 
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Treatment of Bunions and Claw Toes

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Bunions have some obvious signs, such as a deviation of the big toe and a bony protuberance in the joint. Claw toes are the result of anatomical imbalances, which cause the deformity. Do you know what is the best treatment for bunions and claw toes? Keep on reading and take notes! 

Bunions and Claw toes Facts

When suffering with bunions it is common to have joint swelling and pain, caused by the deviation of the first toe towards the second toe, accompanying the bone prominence on the outside of the foot. Further deformities may also develop, such as hammer or claw toes. Bunions and claw toe deformities do not appear from one moment to another; the deformity develops gradually throughout life, although in some cases it can evolve fast.

Are bunions and claw toes common all over the world? No, because bunions occur almost exclusively in people who wear shoes. So it may be strange to find similar cases in populations that walk barefoot. 

The bunion deformity, or hallux valgus, can be classified in different ways. The Manchester scale is the most common one, it classifies bunions into four grades of deformity. Grade 1 is when the person does not have any deformity, grade 2 is a mild form, grade 3 corresponds to a moderated one, and grade 4 corresponds to the most severe form.  

Why does the deformity develop? The enlargement of this deformity is caused by a combination of factors. The most common one is the continuous friction and pressure of the shoe on the bone protrusion. Although, other factors can affect its growth, such as the foot type, abnormal shortening of the first metatarsal bone, trauma, hypermobility, inflammatory diseases and footwear with narrow toebox and heels. 

How to Deal With Bunions

Did you know bunions are also transmitted from one generation to the next? In some cases a generation is skipped. According to Coughlin & Jones (2007), up to 83% of patients who suffer hallux valgus have a family history. This alteration in the foot structure could be due to  the bone, soft tissue, or both. Which does not mean that all inherited alterations will develop bunions.

On one hand, women are seven-to-nine times more likely to suffer from bunions than men. It increases if they have a low body mass index and wear high heels habitually. On the other hand, men with flat feet and high body mass index are more likely to have them. 

Treating bunions is recommended because with time the deformity can affect the other toes, and unfortunately, they cannot be resolved or corrected without surgery. There are silicone separators which can align the big toe slightly, and orthotics which can be used to stabilize the joint of the first toe. But there is no way to fully correct the problem.

Minimal Invasive Surgery Technique 

The best way to correct bunions and claw toes is by performing minimal invasive surgery. This operation is accomplished by medical specialists and podiatrists with extensive experience in this field. 

The minimal invasive surgery technique has been used for about 40 years. These are some of its advantages:

  • Avoids complications that may arise from general anaesthetics.
  • Ambulatory surgery: this allows patients to come and leave walking unaided from the clinic.
  • Great long term results.
  • A faster recovery due to a minimal incision, which leaves little post-operative pain.
  • Better scar healing and low risk of infection.
  • No screws or implants are required.

Consult a foot specialist on time, such as Dr. I. San Román Sirvent or Dr. José Manuel San Román Pérez, who are specialists in minimal incision surgery at Clínica San Román. You will have a complete exam of the foot performed. X-rays will establish the degree of bunion deformity and other problems that may have developed.

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Cryotherapy, the hidden beauty secret of celebrities to burn 600 calories in 3 minutes

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exercise sports woman

Cold and ice have been used as a treatment for physical ailments for a long time. In ancient Greece, famous physicians like Hippocrates use ice for anesthetic purposes as to reduce inflammation.

Nowadays, is used as a fundamental therapeutic treatment of physical complaints such as sprains, dislocations, contractures, spams, pulled muscles and swollen tissues.

As well, to manage diverse pathologies symptoms as fibromyalgia, psoriasis, chronic pains, among others.

Cryotherapy benefits have gone way beyond of what we can imagine. Not only is a pain management treatment but has become a top model treatment of celebrities and supermodels.

Film stars, high performance athletes and celebrities like Tom Cruise, Jennifer Aniston, Cristiano Ronaldo and Kim Kardashian are a few example of the many followers of this therapy that recommend it in their social media by showing their experience after each session because of it multiple benefits

What is cryotherapy?

Cryotherapy is the exposure of the skin surface of the body to very low temperatures (between -110ºC and -196ºC) by using a cryotherapy cabin which uses “vaporized” liquid nitrogen.

Because nitrogen has a very low temperature without applying extra cold, it can easily achieve the extreme temperature required for this treatment.

At a room temperature, liquid nitrogen can easily pass from a liquid state to a gaseous state. This is the reason of nitrogen use in this kind of treatments and this is why it is said that uses nitrogen “vaporized”.

When exposing the body to very low temperatures because of liquid nitrogen evaporation, the body responds at different levels involving the circulatory system, muscles and the neuroendocrine system. This happens because the brain receives a cold shock caused by a drastic reduction of body’s temperature. The hypothalamus releases series of substances in our body to combat an imminent hypothermia situation. Among these substances we can find dopamine, serotonin and endorphins, which increases blood flow, lipolysis and the production of free radicals catalytic enzymes, while reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines.

Cryotherapy benefits

One of the main benefit of cryotherapy -and the reason why it is so popular, is the burn of calories. The extreme cold application causes a decrease in body’s temperature, and to compensate this situation the body generates energy by burning localized fat deposits –such as the fat in the belly, therefore a loss of weight occurs togheter with a swelling in the lower abdomen. This same process works for all the body fat deposits. It also reduces, considerably, the annoying cellulite giving an appearance of youth to the body. Additionaly, cryotherapy builds up tissues tone and prevents flaccidity, allowing the body to remain firm and giving the skin a smoothly and healthy look.

Among other benefits, cryotherapy has been proven to be a non-invasive treatment helping to manage and alleviate symptoms of chronic skin diseases such as psoriasis, neurodermatitis, dermatitis, seborrheic complex syndrome, eczema, erythematosis and scleroderma. This due to the peripheral vasodilatation that occurs because of the decreasing in body’s temperature, carring a large amount of oxygen to the body and increasing the blood flow.

Experts explain that there are several and diverse cryotherapy benefits:

  • It helps fight migraine and insomnia.
  • It improves blood circulation and inhibits varicose veins.
  • It reduces inflammation, stress, anxiety and fatigue.
  • It accelerates metabolism generating a boost of energy.
  • It increases the caloric expenditure -between 500 and 800 kilocalories in the next few hours after a 3-minute session.

Finally, research show that cryotherapy helps in recovery processes and chronic pain issues, and it is also recommended for diseases such as fibromyalgia, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis.

Is cryotherapy dangerous?

Like any other medical-aesthetic treatment, if handled properly there is no risk for our health and integrity.

Provided temperatures reached by liquid nitrogen are very low, it could cause burns when used incorrectly. This is why the skin is only exposed for a very short period of time on the skin -from 2 minutes to 4 minutes, and always in a controlled environment under medical supervision.

As a general rule, cryotherapy is a safe treatment for everybody. However there are exceptional cases where the use of cryotherapy is not recommended:

  • People with heart problems and serious health problems, because the sudden decrease in temperature could have a negative effect on the health of people suffering from heart problems.
  • People with little resistance to cold, as they would suffer excessively during the session due to the low threshold of pain towards the cold.
  • Pregnant women and children. This due to negative effects this treatment could have on fetus of a pregnant women and in children it is not advised because of they are still developing their bodies.
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