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National conflicts in former Yugoslavia, Transylvania and the former Soviet Union have triggered re-definition of the traditional concept of security. If before security was viewed from the military point of view, now it gets more complicated. Today’s threats are not just military but also social. They concern questions of identity and internal balance of a state.

The newly emerged states after the collapse of the Soviet Union chose to pursue the European Union. Its increased integration within the EU led to “decoupling of state and nation” (Waever et al 1993, p. 23) and posed a threat to national constituencies. This desire to pursue a post-sovereign nation-state was due to internationalization process (as well as Europeanization). As higher international institutions take power over the domestic affairs, people feel threatened by this and cannot ask for help their government. Thus, if decoupling is not possible, new conflicts emerge (e.g. as it happened in Yugoslavia). In this sense, weak states are usually not prepared to deal with differences in culture and identity.

Societal insecurities happen when a society questions its own survival. The loss of political sovereignty, the loss of cultural autonomy (e.g. Euroscepticism in regards to EU integration) and migration are the main threats to the national identity. In contrast to the national security, societal security does not depend on the territory. A specific attention is drawn to the problems of migration, minorities and multiculturalism. This resembles the ideas of Huntington in the “Clash of Civilizations?” (See Huntington 1993).

For example, migration has impact on common identity and culture. It has an ability to alter the composition of the population linguistically, ethnically, culturally and religiously. Meanwhile the cultural diversity is welcomed to some extent, until it penetrates norms and traditions. However, migration is a question of numbers. That is why the recent migration crisis sparked tensions among the countries, accepting the refugees. It has the possibility to prevent the society “to reproduce itself in the old way” (Buzan 1991). In the age of the human rights and tolerance, the questions of race, religion and culture are becoming quite tricky.

Migration itself in the recent years has been becoming easier. Transportation and travel is not a matter of concern anymore. Determined young people are ready for anything in search of a better life. If in the last centuries there were migrating Europeans, now the flow usually comes from the South-Eastern side, from less developed countries to developed ones. It is impossible to avoid the clashes of civilizations, especially considering the numbers.

In the UK, for instance, the Arabs, who came to the country long time ago, are now not only following their traditions and preserving their culture, but also gaining more power at the political level. In Latvia there is an issue with the Russian-speaking population, who are trying to preserve their language and culture. Similar situation is in Pakistan, which shares different kind of cultures and identities. Many more countries are trying to deal with their minorities, and now there is unprecedented influx of refugees, fleeing the countries from the conflicts. Inevitably, this should be taken into consideration when talking about security. It is also clear that this societal element is interconnected with other types of security, particularly with military and political.

Some people view migration as a threat; others try to be more optimistic about it. Some states try to defend themselves by controlling migration flows and constructing legal and physical barriers; others are welcoming migrants and offering them entitlements. At any case, this societal security approach gave the beginning to a new branch of security, called “the identity security” (qtd in Buzan, Hansen 2009, p. 213). This security primarily focuses on the cases where the state and its societies do not align, for example the cases of minorities facing their governments.

Interestingly enough, as far back as 1987 a clear rivalry between the West and other periphery societies was noted in academia. What the West does is it constructs the image of others as underdeveloped, uncivilized, authoritative, poor, so this impacts the status of the country and the attitude towards it. Of course, the advancement of the West influenced the weaker opponents, expanding concepts, ideas and Western styles. It has an ability to threaten local customs and identities. In contrast, Islam is thought capable of expanding as another form of collective culture (See Buzan 1991).  

Not only development played the role in this Western-based representation, but also the historic events of the XX century. Back then, the West became the main writer of the history, using West-centered approach. For example, the infamous Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact condemns actions of the Soviet Union and Germany. Yet, another agreement is rarely discussed, – the Munich Agreement of 1938, signed by France and the United Kingdom, permitting Germany to annex Czechoslovakia. Having more resources to transmit information, the West could draw attention to certain facts. Even now the Western capabilities are far greater than the rest to expand its culture, political ideas and identity. Not surprisingly, other countries might not like it.

Now there is an obvious confrontation between the West and Russia (similarly as with Islam). It is also the case that the negative image is being constructed by the West in order to reach its political objective. Likewise, Russia answers with the similar pattern, targeting the West instead. Here one can see a societal element in it and how it is linked to the national security. After the Cold War, it was Buzan who suggested that another kind of the Cold War was possible: he called it “a Societal Cold War”. Now, 26 years after, it sounds quite true.

Today’s conflicts are more about cultural, identity, and civilizational clashes. This is why it is important to recognize importance of cultures and identities (and languages! As they lead right to the heart of understanding another culture | linguistic remark) and strive to achieve a balance between them. Once it is there, well…

References:

Buzan, B. (1991). “New Patterns of Global Security in the Twenty-First Century”, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), 63:3, 431-451.

Buzan, B., Hansen, L. (2009). The Evolution of International Security Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Huntington, S. “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs, 72:3, pp. 22-49.

Waever, O., Buzan, B., Kelstrup, M., & Lemaitre, P. (1993). Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe. Lonon: Pinter.

 

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Specialist in global security and nuclear disarmament. Excited about international relations, curious about cognitive, psycho- & neuro-linguistics. A complete traveller.

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The answers to your future can be found online

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The most popular tarot and horoscope platforms give answers to the eternal human questions about fate, health and love, which are formulated daily on Internet search engines all over the world.

Tarot is not a simply deck of cards. Each of them is loaded with symbolism and each fortune-teller has their own method. Truth is, the number of people interested in these things increases every day, as they seek ever more detailed knowledge and answers about themselves and their future. This pursuit satisfies an innate human desire to pursue self-discovery, an aspect of our nature that we have never been able reasonably explain. But nowadays, and since the prevalence of the Internet, places like free tarot reading are becoming more and more popular.

Tarot is consulted by people of all genders and social backgrounds, the need to understand what the future holds is such a basic underlying desire.

In some cases, tarot readers can play with the fear of the unknown, while there are others, like the Chilean philosopher Alejandro Jodorowsky, who use the tarot cards as a psychological tool, helping us to know ourselves better and have the awareness to able to change harmful habits.

Love is the answer: penetrating to the unconscious

But If there is one thing that has troubled us since the dawn of time, it is love. Love and relationships raise the most questions, causes the most uncertainty and make us feel so vulnerable. Though the answers to those questions can both disarm us and fill us with hope. Powerful emotions like this are some of the many reasons to consult love tarot reading, from a convenient and simple to use the portal.

Some theorists believe that tarot cards are guided by a spiritual energy that strives to offer guidance, channelled through the expert understanding by the consultant, while others, such as the philosopher Carl Jung, attribute the reading of tarot is a means to tap into a collective unconscious that we all share.

Tarot is not just a crutch to those feeling desperate for answers, but a mean to deepen our self-awareness. A word of caution though, it has the potential to influence in a negative way to the most vulnerable personalities.

Horoscope theories for good and bad times

The other method of divination that is always been very popular is the horoscope. The horoscope uses the position of the stars on an individual’s day of birth to predict the facets of their character. And while much of the theory has been lost to history, the classification of human beings into twelve predefined personalities is still a popular way to approach divination through the use of a daily horoscope.

The horoscope is as old as life itself. The first notches in mammoth skins that represent the stars are dated 25.000 million years B.C. To this day those with a spiritual disposition will not only regularly consult the general daily horoscope, they will also seek patterns and meanings in the stars movements across the year and beyond. Today you can check your fortunes through the horoscope 2018, a must-see for anyone seeking to uncover the secrets of next year.

According to horoscope theories, the most fortuitous result you can hope for it that the stars align propitiously in your most hesitant aspects. To receive an auspicious horoscope can make you feel motivated and reinvigorated. If you are not so lucky then at least forewarned is forearmed.

There is no doubt that tarot and horoscope still have a much-visited home on the net. Questions of faith that humans have always pondered, about the unknown, about the future and about themselves, remain unanswered despite the technology and scientific advances. It is not strange that when we find ourselves faced with questions of faith and spirituality, with no conventional answer to be found, we still turn to divination websites for comfort, reassurance and most of all, answers.

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Did ‘Serial’ Bring Justice?

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Nearly three years ago, a weekly podcast became a smash-hit and the precursor to media justice series – like the Netflix series Making A Murderer. They had the same case, a man jailed for murder, but there would always be more than meets the eye.

Serial, released by Sarah Koenig and a bunch of producers from the team at This American Life heralded a new age of podcasting and the second ‘podcasting’ boom kicked off – we’re still enjoying the golden age of podcasts right now. Serial ran for two seasons, and while there is talk of a third, it is the first season that will likely live long in the memory.

The very first season of Serial depicted the incarceration of Adnan Syed after the death of Hae Min Lee. In 1999, Hae Min Lee, a high school student, disappeared in Maryland. After a month, her corpse was found in a park, having been strangled to death. A suspect was identified in 17-year-old Adnan Syed, Hae Min Lee’s ex-boyfriend. Syed was arrested, and within a year, Syed was sentenced to life in prison. Syed was damned by the testimony of his best friend, Jay. Jay described, in vivid detail how he had helped Syed bury Hae Min Lee in the Park. Adnan was jailed, and Serial follows this case and Adnan’s plea that he had nothing to do with Hae Min Lee’s death.

Sarah Koenig, during the production of Serial, interviewed Adnan Syed for the podcast and the tale is slowly unraveled. Syed’s first trial was put to bed as a mistrial, but the following court case saw Syed imprisoned for life. Koenig took an impartial view to the trial and found a lot of worrying information, despite refusing to take Adnan’s side.

One of the biggest worries to Koenig was the racial side of the trial. The prosecution made the case that Adnan was going to be smuggled to Pakistan and after a dispute with Hae Min Lee, he performed an ‘honor’ killing. This view could have easily stirred up an anti-Islamic sentiment in the court and within the jury. Certain aspects of the case only seem to arise because of Syed’s religion and race. A criminal defense attorney would have struggled to fight back against such a case put forward and would have found it hard to defend Adnan because of this. Add Jay’s testimony and a bunch of erratic witness accounts and you’ve got an entire case built to setup Adnan Syed.

Serial doesn’t argue for Syed to be released, but for a fair trial to take place. A man was jailed based on circumstantial evidence and a number of biased witness accounts. Thanks to the success of Serial, Adnan Syed has been granted a new trial, meaning the previous trial will not stand. Adnan Syed – right now – is still in jail, but cannot be declared a murderer until his new trial takes place later this year. Justice? It doesn’t always have to be a verdict, but a chance to do a court case once again, but by the book of the law.

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Escaping Your Addiction For Something Safer

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The modern world is awash with addiction. In day to day life, loads of people use chemicals to make their day easier. And, a lot of the time, these sorts of substances are looked at as being normal simply because so many people use them. Modern living presents new addictions thanks to the Internet, too. With people struggling to stop spending; thousands of people each year are falling into debt because of addictions. Thankfully, though, where you have an addiction; you usually have a solution. But, it won’t be easy. You’re going to have to put in some work.

One of the greatest examples of digital addiction comes with social media. Websites like Facebook and Twitter have millions of active users. These services allow people to connect with others through message-board-like structures. People trade likes and follows, making themselves feel important and popular. As time goes on, this leads to people spending most of their time on websites like this. And, unfortunately, there’s only one way to fix this sort of tendency; through seeing people in real life. Instead of dedicating time to social media, you should be spending it on arranging seeing friends. This is how humans are meant to socialise; and, it’s something that’s much more healthy to be addicted to.

Next, comes something a little more serious. Gambling has plagued people’s lives for hundreds of years. But, now it’s easier than ever to throw away your money from the comfort of your own home. Online casinos have sprung up on all of the corners of the Internet. These sites allow you to play games like you would in a casino; only the board and other players are digital. Thankfully, these games are usually playing on the satisfaction you get from winning. And, the very same feeling can be found in competitive video games; like DOTA 2 and Overwatch. This is a much more cost-effective way to get that winner’s rush.

One of the most addictive substances within modern societies is nicotine. And, most people get their fix from smoking. Unfortunately, though, smoking is very bad for you. Not only does it damage your lungs and throat; but, it also makes it more likely that you will have heart problems, too. E-cigarettes have been proven to be safer than cigarettes. And, they’re just as safe as other nicotine replacements. Getting your hands on something like this is just a matter of visiting a website or two. Just make sure that you read some reviews.

Over 90% of Americans are addicted to caffeine. Caffeine is a stimulant that increases your heart rates and makes you consume your body’s resources a little quicker. This gives you a rush of energy. People use this substance to help them through the day. If you’re drinking coffee; it’s not so bad. But, if you like to drink carbonated drinks, including energy drinks; it’s best to find a healthier alternative.

Hopefully, this will give you a good idea of the modern addictions that are easy to slip into. Of course, there are addictions that you should fear more. But, these are much more rare in most places. So, you don’t have to be too worried.

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